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Around  the   World. 



Author  of  "  Bohemian  Society." 



PRINTED     BY    JAMES     MURRAY    &    CO. 
26  &  28  Front  Street  West. 





/^^^  O  many  books  have  been  written,  and  descriptions  given,  of  the  scenery 
,^^^     across  the  Rocky  Mountains,  that  it  is  famiHar  to  nearly  every  one,  and 
even  if  it  were  not,  only  the  pen  of  a  Ruskin  can  do  justice  to  it,  so  I 
will  leave  to  the  imagination  of  my  readers  this  magnificent  scenery. 

It  requires  six  days  to  reach  San  Francisco  from  Toronto,  and  although  the 
scenery  is  grand,  the  journey  becomes  rather  wearisome.  I  was  reminded  of  the 
story  of  an  Englishman  and  American  who  were  travelling  together  over  the 
continent.  The  American  said  to  the  Englishman,,  "  Well,  what  do  you  think  of 
our  country,  anyway  ?  "  The  Englishman  pondered  for  a  time,  and  at  last  replied, 
"Well,  I  think  \t\s  large." 

Remaining  in  San  Francisco  a  week,  it  gave  me  an  opportunity  of  studying 
the  character  and  habits  of  the  "yellow-skinned  strangers  from  the  Flowery  King- 
dom."    Accompanied  by  Officer  Glennon,  of  the   San    Francisco  Police  Force, 
who  is  most  gentlemanly  and  obliging,  we  started   at   7.30  o'clock   to  visit  the 
Chinese  quarter  of  the  city,  which  commences  at  the  corner  of  Jackson  and 
Kearney  Streets.     There  are  about  35,000  or  40,000  Chinese  in  San  Francisco, 
occupying  an   area  that   would    be   insufficient  for   500  people  of  more  cleanly 
habits.       Chinamen    will   remain    a   race  of  "  washee-washees  "    until    they    are 
made  to  understand  sanitary  laws,  and  I  think  it  would  be  just  as  easy  to  make  a 
jelly  fish  understand  Greek.     The  first  place  visited  was  a  Chinese  barber  shop. 
Now,  I  would  like  all  gentlemen  readers  to  disabuse  their  minds  of  any  idea  of  a 
luxurious    "  shave."     Not  being   in  the   habit  of  frequenting  barber   shops,    or 
"tonsorial   parlors,"   the  situation  was  unique,  and  I  glanced  around  rather  fear- 
fully at  the  array  of  knives,  and  spoons,  or  things  which  looked  to  me  like  spoons. 
There   was  a  Chinese  in  the  chair  undergoing  the  operation,  which  I  watched 
with    interest.     All  hair    is   removed   from  the   face,   ears  and  nose — none  left 
but  the  eyebrows.     While  the   barber  was  engaged  in  shaving  the  head,  I  was 
about  to  ask  the  officer  to  interfere,  thinking  the  victim  was  about  to  be  scalped  ; 


but  he  reassured  me  by  saying  that  they  only  shaved  about  a  mile  and  a  half 
back  on  the  head,  and  when  that  Mongolian  arose  from  the  chair  his  face  and 
head  were  as  smooth  as  an  infant's. 

The  next  place  visited  was  a  Chinese  pawn  shop.  Most  of  my  readers 
have  read  "  The  Old  Curiosity  Shop."  Put  several  old  curiosity  shops  together 
and  you  will  have  one  Chinese  pawn  shop.  There  was  wearing  apparel  of  every 
description,  from  the  handsomely  embroidered  robe  to  the  linen  blouse  ;  pipes  of 
every  shape,  pistols,  fans,  Chinese  weapons — which,  by  the  way,  are  rather 
formidable  looking  things.  Some  of  them  are  half-circle  handles  with  two  knives 
in  one  sheath.  1  picked  up  a  fan  and  tried  to  open  it,  but  discovered  that  it  was 
a  sheath  knife  ;  the  lower  part  of  the  fan  pulls  off,  leaving  the  upper  part  with  a 
sharp  knife  attached.  Many  of  the  fans  carried  by  Chinese  at  night  are  sheath 

Our  next  visit  was  to  a  drug  store,  where  horned  toads  are  preserved  in 
liquor  and  administered  as  medicine,  deer's  horns  are  powdered  and  given  to 
make  bone  and  muscle.  Probably  the  imagination  works  a  cure  for  the  Chinese, 
as  it  does  in  many  instances  for  the  more  enlightened  portion  of  humanity.  . 

The  next  call  was  at  one  of  the  gambling  dens,  where  about  fifty  Chinese 
were  gathered,  eight  or  ten  being  engaged  at  a  table  playing  a  game  not  unlike 
dominoes.  They  are  inveterate  gamblers,  and  here  could  be  seen  the  same 
excitement,  the  same  interest,  the  same  display  of  character,  the  same  restless, 
anxious  looks  that  are  found  at  fashionable  gambling  places.  The  Chinaman 
who  made  the  pools  had  been  arrested  a  short  time  previous  for  murder,  and 
was  then  out  on  bail.  He  was  the  finest  specimen  of  his  race  that  I  had  met ; 
large,  well-proportioned,  an  intelligent  face  and  well-shaped  head.  I  was  hoping 
they  would  find  him  innocent,  and  even  if  he  were  guilty,  as  he  was  the  only 
specimen  who  looked  like  a  man,  why  not  hang  some  of  the  others  as  an  example 
and  let  him  off.'' 

We  went  in  quietly  so  as  not  to  disturb  their  game,  and  I  was  looking  over 
the  shoulder  of  one  of  the  players  when  he  lost,  and  turning,  he  saw  me,  at  the 
same  time  giving  utterance  to  a  Chinese  expletive,  which,  the  officer  informed  me, 
referred  to  things  more  profane  than  sacred.  They  are  very  superstitious,  and 
he  attributed  his  bad  luck  to  a  white  person  being  near  him. 

Our  next  visit  was  to  the  opium  dens.  We  went  down  several  steps  under- 
ground, coming  to  a  place  just  sufficiently  high  to  stand  in,  with  shelves  each 
side,  and  curled  up  in  several  of  these  shelves  were  Chinamen,  indulging  in  their 
favorite    pastime,   smoking   opium.       I    remembered  at    one   time   seeing  some 


mummies  from  Peru,  and  have  never  seen  anything  since  which  reminded  me  of 
them  until  I  saw  these  Chinese  on  the  shelves  smoking  opium.  Give  the 
mummy  a  pipe  and  he  would  look  equally  as  intelligent,  and  would  be  just  as 
companionable.  Going  through  a  narrow  passage,  we  arrived  at  a  place  about  as 
large  as  a  small  dry  goods  box,  directly  under  the  pavement,  where  one  man 
alone  was  smoking.  He  evidently  looked  upon  our  visit  as  an  intrusion,  and 
was  altogether  the  most  objectionable  object  I  had  yet  seen.  The  officer  spoke 
to  him,  but  was  informed  that  he  would  "no  speakee."  Many  people  think  the 
Chinese  smoke  for  ten  or  fifteen  minutes,  but  it  is  a  mistake.  They  take  about 
two  "  whiffs  "  and  are  through. 

Leaving  the  underground  dens,  we  ascended  the  steps  to  the  outer  world, 
and  I  never  remember  being  so  thankful  for  fresh  air.  The  next  place  of  interest 
was  the  Tong-Wah-Mew,  or  Joss  house.  There  were  fantastic  and  hideous 
images,  deities  to  whom  the  Chinese  offer  their  devotions.  At  one  side  of  the 
room  is  a  grate  used  for  a  peculiar  purpose.  Any  Chinaman  who  owes  a  debt  too 
large  for  him  to  pay,  if  he  goes  to  the  Joss  house  and  declares  before  all  these 
deities  that  he  is  really  unable  to  pay,  his  creditor  takes  the  piece  of  paper  upon 
which  the  sum  is  written  and  throws  it  in  this  grate,  and  the  debt  is  cancelled. 
If  that  were  the  custom  among  Europeans  the  grates  would  be  kept  constantly 

At  last  we  are  going  to  a  house  that  is  the  "  correct "  place  to  visit,  that  is, 
to  the  Chinese  restaurant.  Every  one,  nearly,  who  visits  San  Francisco,  goes  to 
this  establishment.  This  is  the  most  cleanly  place  one  will  find  in  all  the 
Chinese  quarter.  Many  people  think  they  are  visiting  the  Chinese  part  of  the 
city,  and  are  taken  to  the  restaurant,  the  theatre  and  the  Joss  house,  and  go 
away  satisfied  that  they  know  something  about  the  people  ;  but  to  know  any- 
thing of  their  habits  one  must  go  underground.  The  restaurant  is  very  nicely 
fitted  up,  tables  well  laid,  clean  damask  and  quaint  little  dishes,  tiny  tea  cups  that 
contain  about  three  tablespoonfuls  of  tea.  We  ordered  tea,  and  they  brought 
something  that  looked  a  little  like  it,  and  with  it  some  pumpkin  seeds  in  a  tiny 
dish,  and  some  other  things  which  I  did  not  investigate.  There  is  some  very 
beautiful  carving  in  this  room,  and  the  chairs  are  handsomely  embroidered  in 
Chinese  designs. 

The  next  and  last  place  we  visited  was  the  theatre,  and  by  far  the  most 
interesting,  if  one  can  call  anything  interesting  that  they  do  not  understand.  We 
were  given  the  seat  of  honor,  that  is,  on  the  stage.  There  are  no  wings,  or 
flies,  or  curtains  of  any  kind  in  a  Chinese  theatre.     The   stage  is  raised  a  little 


from  the  floor,  and  the  musicians  sit  on  the  stage  near  the  actors.  Any  thing 
more  hideous  than  the  noises  of  these  instruments  can  not  be  imagined.  There 
is  nothing  approaching  a  tune,  but  simply  a  screech  and  sawing.  There  were  no 
cats  in  the  neighborhood,  and  I  attributed  it  to  the  reason  that  they  had  heard 
the  orchestra  of  the  theatre,  and  found  something  that  could  make  night  more 
hideous  than  they. 

The  actors  are  men — no  women  are  on  the  stage.  A  Chinese  was  dressed 
as  a  woman,  and  spoke,  or  screeched,  in  a  high  falsetto,  in  imitation  of  a  woman's 

The  dresses  were  very  pretty.  The  principal  actor — shades  of  Garrick  ! — 
wore  a  dress  of  some  bright  color,  with  tiny  little  mirrors  about  the  size  of  twenty 
cent  pieces,  all  over  it.     The  effect  was  rather  pretty. 

The  audience  was  composed  principally  of  men — all  Chinese — who  sat  with 
their  hats  on.  There  is  no  applause,  not  the  faintest,  and  I  thought  one  of  the 
actors  deserved  some  applause,  as  he  had  been  killed,  was  carried  off  the  stage, 
and  coolly  walked  back  in  the  next  act,  when  the  same  killing  process  was  gone 
through  again.  The  Chinese  play  sometimes  lasts  for  six  months  before  the 
drama  is  ended.  Imagine  going  every  night  for  six  months  to  find  out  how  the 
plot  ended !  One  hour  was  quite  long  enough  for  me,  and  anything  more 
fantastic  I  have  never  witnessed.  There  is  a  supper  served  for  the  principal 
actors  after  the  theatre  is  closed,  and  the  officer  took  me  to  a  room  where  a 
young  Chinaman  was  busily  engaged  in  dressing  the  entrails  of  a  dog  for  supper. 
I  do  not  think  that  even  the  most  pressing  invitation  could  have  induced  me  to 
remain  to  share  the  repast.  I  am  very  fond  of  dogs,  but  I  prefer  them  intact. 
I  dreamed  of  dogs  that  night,  dogs  brown,  dogs  white,  dogs  black,  dogs  fried 
and  dogs  broiled. 

There  are  about  600  Chinese  prostitutes  in  San  Francisco.  The  money 
which  is  procured  from  their  mode  of  life  goes  to  their  owner,  as  all  these  women 
are  bought  and  sold.     They  are  not  allowed  to  appropriate  any  of  it. 

They  live  in  one  row  of  houses.  The  rooms  look  like  small  boxes  with  a 
little  grating  before  the  window,  before  which  these  women  sit.  Some  of  them 
have  rather  pretty  faces,  but  as  a  rule  they  are  repulsive,  being  almost  entirely 
lacking  in  expression. 

I  will  say  nothing  about  the  city  of  San  Francisco,  as  descriptions  of  it 
are  written  and  re-written,  but  will  go  on  to  countries  of  which  less  is  known  by 
my  own  country  people. 

•5  §8 



.<— >  m 


N  the  22nd  of  November  I  sailed  for  Australia,  in  the  steamship 
"  Mariposa,"  Commander  Capt.  Haywood,  and  arrived  in  Honolulu, 
capital  of  the  Sandwich  Islands,  November  29th.  The  Hawaiian,  or 
Sandwich  Islands,  lie  in  the  North  Pacific  about  2,080  miles  from  San  Francisco. 
There  are  twelve  islands  in  the  group,  eight  of  which  are  inhabited,  and  the  area 
of  the  whole  is  6,000  square  miles. 

The  first  thing  which  attracts  the  attention  of  travellers  on  approaching 
Honolulu  is  the  number  of  extinct  volcanoes,  which  rear  their  heads  and  look  like 
granite  giants,  the  most  conspicuous  being  called  Diamond  Head.  It  rises 
directly  from  the  water's  edge,  with  sides  seamed  and  scarred  by  the  lava  which 
had  boiled  and  burst  over  it.  The  water  is  a  beautiful  emerald  green  ;  the 
intensity  of  its  color  is  caused  by  a  coral  reel  that  runs  out  nearly  a  mile.  It  is 
very  beautiful,  but  most  dangerous  to  ships.  Approaching  nearer,  we  catch 
glimpses  of  cocoanut  palms,  and  a  cottage  nestling  here  and  there  among  the 
trees,  with  the  lofty  serrated  mountains  in  the  background. 

At  last  the  ship  arrives  at  the  wharf,  and  we  see  hundreds  of  native  men 
and  women.  The  women  are  splendidly  formed,  with  magnificent  physiques, 
and,  since  the  advent  of  civilization,  the  women  dress  in  loose  robes  not  unlike 
our  "  Mother  Hubbard."  I  took  great  pleasure  in  watching  them,  their  graceful 
movements  wholly  free  and  untrammelled,  their  flowing  dresses  showing  the 
contour  of  their  limbs,  the  poise  of  the  head,  and  I  thought,  "  Here  is  a  model 
for  a  painter's  skill,"  and  I  could  not  help  contrasting  them  in  my  mind  with  the 
pinched  waist,  flat  chest,  and  absurd  wibble-wobble  of  many  fashionable  women. 
The  native  women  of  the  Sandwich  Islands  ride  astride  their  horses.  It  rather 
takes  one's  breath  away  at  first  to  see  women  riding  in  this  way,  but  when  one 
stops  to  consider  a  moment,  it  is  only  that  we  have  not  been  accustomed  to 
seeing  it. 

Honolulu  contains  a  population  of  about  fifteen  thousand,  and  as  it  is  a  toy 
kingdom,  it  is  under  the  control  of  His  Majesty  King  Kalakaua,  descendant  of  the 
king  who  a  hundred  years  ago  killed  and  ate  Captain  Cook,  the  greatest  mariner 
Britain  ever  knew.  The  court  consists  of  His  Majesty  Kalakaua,  Her  Majesty 
the  Queen,  Her  Royal  Highness  the  Princess  Liliuokalani,  and  Her  Royal 
Highness    Victoria- Kawekieu-Lunalilo-KalaninuiaJiilapalapa.       My  readers  will 



have  no  difficulty  in  pronouncing  these  names  ;  I  have  only  given  a  few  of  the 
royal  court  names.  On  the  day  of  our  arrival  in  Honolulu  the  king's  birth-day 
was  being  celebrated — his  fiftieth  year.  The  palace  is  a  very  picturesque  build- 
ing from  the  exterior,  and  with  red  flags  flying  and  native  soldiers  stationed  at 
the  door,  the  scene  was  almost  barbaric.  But  the  interior  of  .the  palace  is  by  no 
means  barbaric;  it  is  very  elegant;  the  entrance  hall  is  large,  with  winding  stairs, 
handsome  gasaliers,  beautifully  carved  tables  and  large  vases  of  tropical  foliage. 
It  requires  the  .same  amount  of  formality  to  be  presented  to  His  Majesty  as  is 
usual  in  approaching  all  royal  personages.  The  United  States  Consul  and  Mr. 
Julian  Thomas,  the  well  known  writer,  endeavored  to  get  an  interview  on  my 
behalf  with  His  Most  Gracious  Majesty,  King  Kalakaua,  but  discovered  that  the 
king  was  too  intoxicated  to  receive  us.  I  will  not  comment  upon  this,  as  my 
acquaintance  with  kings  has  been  somewhat  limited  ;  I  may  not  be  a  competent 
judge  of  what  is  considered  correct  in  the  deportment  of  kingly  personages. 
The  residences  in  Honolulu  are  quaint  in  the  extreme,  but  the  tropical  foliage, 
waving  palms,  brilliant  flowers,  all  form  a  picture  to  make  one  forget  the  absence 
of  architectural  beauty.  I  went  into  a  store  where  they  sell  "curios,"  and  told 
the  proprietor  to  give  me  something  that  I  could  carry  easily,  and  he  handed  me 
a  native  dress.  It  could,  certainly,  be  carried  easily,  for  it  consisted  of  a  narrow 
band  about  an  inch  in  width,  with  strings  of  dried  grass  attached.  That  is  the 
native  dress  in  the. interior,  before  the  appearance  of  the  missionary  and  Mother 

The  fruits  of  the  Hawaiian  Islands  are  alligator  pears,  bananas,  cherimozas, 
China  oranges,  cocoanuts,  custard  apples,  dates,  Eugenie  figs,  garcinia,  grapes, 
guavas,  Java  plums,  limes,  litchi,  loquats,  mangoes,  mulberries,  muskmelons, 
ohias,  oranges,  papias,  peaches,  pine  apples,  pomegranates,  rose  apples,  sapoto 
pears,  sour  sop,  Spanish  cherries,  strawberries,  tamarinds,  water  lemons,  water- 
melons, whampee.  The  alligator  pear  makes  an  excellent  salad.  There  is  one 
thing  that  strikes  a  stranger  very  forcibly  in  Honolulu,  that  is  the  different  nation- 
alities— natives,  Chinese,  Yankees,  Hindoos,  Frenchmen,  Germans,  Spaniards, 
Britons  ;  all  form  a  cosmopolitan  gathering  that  would  be  difficult  to  find  else- 

There  are  a  great  number  of  lepers  in  the  Sandwich  Islands,  but  every  pre- 
caution is  taken  to  prevent  the  spread  of  the  terrible  disease.  There  is  an  island 
plainly  visible  from  the  ship  before  reaching  Honolulu,  where  the  poor  wretches 
are  taken  ;  they  are  cut  off  from  the  world,  living  alone,  waiting  for  death  to  end 
their  misery. 


Leprosy  is  said  to  have  been  introduced  from  Asia  into  the  Sandwich  Islands 
more  than  half  a  century  ago,  and  spread  with  such  rapidity  that  the  government 
was  compelled  to  devise  some  means  to  separate  the  sufferers  from  the  rest  of 
the  population.  They  selected,  for  this  purpose,  one  of  the  most  secluded  of  the 
Sandwich  Islands — the  island  of  Molokai.  Thither  the  lepers  are  transported 
from  the  other  Hawaiian  Islands.  In  the  past  fifteen  years  2,500  have  been 
transported.  The  condition  of  these  poor  people  was  pitiable  indeed,  but  fifteen 
years  ago  a  young  Belgian  priest.  Father  Damien  de  Veuster,  who  had  been 
sent  on  a  mission  to  Honolulu,  hearing  of  the  condition  of  these  people,  volun- 
teered to  live  among  them,  and,  if  possible,  alleviate  their  distress.  He  has 
built  thatched  huts  and  cottages,  a  church,  schools  and  hospitals,  with  the  aid  of 
the  lepers.  For  years  he  worked  alone  and  unaided  at  his  strange  task,  but  two 
years  ago  another  priest  joined  him.  Father  Damien  escaped  all  contagion  from 
the  disease  until  about  three  years  ago,  when  it  made  its  appearance,  and  his 
doom  was  therefore  sealed,  but  he  is  still  able  to  continue  his  work.  The  follow- 
ing is  an  extract  from  a  letter  written  by  Father  Damien  to  a  friend  in  England  : 

''Kalawao,  Molokai,  Nov.  8,  i8-jy. 

"  We  continue  our  bathing,  but  only  in  warm  water,  the  supply  of  Japanese 
medicine  being  now  all  out,  though  we  hope  to  receive  a  new  invoice;  such  is  the 
promise  of  our  new  board  of  health.  I  should  be  very  sorry  if  we  should  be 
deprived  of  it  definitely.  The  disease  on  me  works  more  now  at  the  exteriors, 
and  does  not  give  me  so  much  pain  in  the  limbs.  In  regard  to  a  cure  of  this  our 
incurable  disease,  I  leave  that  in  the  hands  of  Almighty  God,  who  knows  better 
than  I  do  what  is  best  for  our  sanctification  during  our  short  stay  in  this  world. 
The  Blessed  Virgin,  our  common  Mother,  in  whose  hands  I  have  entrusted  my 
health  from  the  day  I  put  my  feet  in  this  asylum  of  death,  could  very  easily 
obtain  me  a  miracle,  but  she  too  knows  better  than  I  do  what  may  shorten  my 
road  to  heaven.     And  for  myself  I  feel  very  happy  and  well  pleased  of  my  lot. 

"  Since  the  change  of  our  government,  I  have  received  a  great  number  of 
lepers,  and  probably  a  great  addition  is  to  follow.  I  have  here  under  my  special 
guardianship  fifty  boys,  who  occupy  pretty  well  all  my  spare  time.  The  brother 
with  me  is  greatly  occupied  dressing  sores  and  other  druggist's  occupations. 
Our  two  churches  are  pretty  well  crowded  on  Sundays,  and  every  morning  and 
evening  a  good  number  assist  at  our  divine  worship.  I  will  have  to  bury  this 
afternoon  two  old  lepers  in  one  grave !  With  the  assurance  of  my  esteem,  etc. 
— J.  Damien  de  Veuster." 


Surely  the  age  of  heroism  and  martyrs  is  not  dead.  We  read  of  men  who 
fell  in  battle,  men  who  have  heroically  faced  death,  but  to  my  mind  Father 
Damien  is  the  hero  of  heroes.  Going  of  his  own  free  will  to  a  colony  where 
death  is  the  presiding  genius,  to  lead  a  lonely,  solitary  life,  knowing  full  well  that 
he  too  must  fall  a  victim  to  the  horrible  disease  ;  then  after  years  of  toil  and  self- 
sacrifice,  he  finding  his  doom  is  sealed,  without  a  murmur  patiently  waits  the  death 
which  is  inevitable.  Who  will  say  there  is  no  good  in  human  nature  ?  Who  will 
say  that  in  this  age  there  are  no  martyrs  ? 

Nature  in  its  terrible  mood  is  to  be  seen  in  the  volcanoes  of  the  Hawaiian 
Islands.  Kilauea  and  Mauna  Loa  are  the  largest.  Kilauea,  whose  base  is  at  a 
height  of  nearly  4,600  feet,  on  the  flank  of  Mauna  Loa,  has  the  appearance  of  a 
great  pit.  The  pit  is  nine  miles  in  circumference  ;  there  are  signs  of  volcanic 
activity  throughout  its  whole  depth  ;  great  eruptions  occur  at  intervals.  The 
ascent  of  Mauna  Loa  has  been  dispelled  of  some  of  its  terrors  by  the  frequent 
excursions  made  by  travellers  during  the  past  three  years.  The  crater,  Mo-kua- 
weo-weo,  is  on  the  summit  of  Mauna  Loa.  Action  began  August  9th,  1872,  and 
has  since  been  almost  incessant.  In  the  vicinity  of  Kilauea  the  army  of  Keoua 
met  its  terrible  destruction.  Some  of  the  natives  who  were  contemporary  with 
Keoua  say  that  while  they  encamped  two  days  and  three  nights  at  the  crater  of 
Kilauea,  there  were  repeated  eruptions  and  sending  up  of  cinders  and  stones. 
They  set  forward  on  the  third  day  toward  Kan.  The  earth  trembled  and  shook 
under  their  feet,  a  dense  cloud  arose  from  the  immense  crater,  lightning  and 
thunder  burst  forth  over  their  heads  and  darkness  covered  them,  and  a  shower  of 
cinders  thrown  high  from  the  crater  descended  on  the  region  round  about,  and 
great  numbers  of  Keoua's  men  were  killed  and .  were  found  there  many  days 
afterward  apparently  unchanged,  and  were  at  first  mistaken  for  a  living  company. 

In  Kohala  there  is  the  ruin  of  the  celebrated  heathen  temple,  where  human 
sacrifices  were  made  to  appease  the  wrath  of  the  deities.  Human  lives  were 
sacrificed  to  avert  catastrophes  of  all  kinds;  the  victims  were  allowed  to  remain  two 
days  on  the  altar  ;  the  third  day  the  flesh  was  stripped  from  the  bones,  and  flesh 
and  bones  carried  to  the  sea  and  washed  ;  they  were  then  carried  back  to  the 
temple,  the  bones  tied  up  in  bundles  and  the  flesh  burned  at  the  back  of  the 
altars.  Not  long  ago  one  of  the  volcanoes  burst  forth,  pouring  its  lava  over  the 
mountain  side  ;  it  ran  down  within  a  mile  of  the  town  of  Hilo  ;  the  inhabitants 
were  alarmed  and  some  of  the  people  began  removing  the  machinery  from  their 
mills  and  factories,  when  some  one  suggested  that  they  should  send  for  the  Prin- 
cess Ruth,  sister  of  the  present  king.     She  arrived  and  proceeded  to  throw  a 






123  - 




black  cat,  a  white  pig  and  some  coins  into  the  crater,  at  the  same  time  muttering 
incantations,  when  the  lava  ceased,  and  the  natives  attributed  it  to  her  occult 
powers.  In  olden  times  a  human  life  would  have  been  sacrificed  to  appease 
the  wrath  of  the  angry  gods. 

There  is  a  very  rare  bird  called  the  "Oo,"  which  produces  two  feathers  only. 
These  are  sold  for  one  hundred  and  fifty  dollars  each  to  decorate  the  robes  of  the 
royal  family  ;  the  wealthy  native  women  wear  them  around  their  necks  in  the 
street.  While  still  looking  for  "  curios,"  I  was  shown  these  feathers ;  to  my 
inexperienced  eyes  they  appeared  anything  but  beautiful,  but  looked  as  though 
they  could  be  used  successfully  to  clean  lamp  chimneys  ;  they  were  round  and 
like  the  things  on  wire  used  for  that  purpose. 

There  are  a  great  many  native  dancing  girls  who  assist  in  the  amusement  of 
all  gala  days.  I  must  not  forget  to  mention  the  hotel  in  Honolulu  ;  it  is  handsomely 
fitted  up  with  every  modern  convenience,  and  if  it  were  not  for  the  tropical  trees 
and  foliage  by  which  it  is  surrounded,  one  would  imagine  one's  self  in  an 
American  hotel. 

One  of  the  most  beautiful  places  to  visit  in  all  Hawaii  is  the  mountain 
called  the  Pali,  one  of  the  most  remarkable  wonders  of  nature.  It  is  six  miles 
from  Honolulu,  the  road  ascending  all  the  way.  The  mountains  rise  from  the 
sea  level  to  a  height  of  4,000  feet;  they  do  not  descend  in  sober  mountain  fashion, 
but  are  cleft  in  two,  one  half  left  standing,  the  other  gone,  no  one  knows  whither. 
It  is  nowhere  less  than  800  feet,  in  many  places  over  2,000  feet  deep;  below  are 
plains  and  hills.  The  valley  below  is  classic  ground  in  Hawaiian  history  ;  there 
was  fought  the  last  of  seven  decisive  battles  by  Kamehameha,  victories  that 
made  him  sole  monarch  and  established  his  dynasty.  On  the  rocky  slopes  of 
these  impregnable  mountains  the  natives,  with  spears  and  clubs,  resisted  the 
hordes  of  the  invaders,  fighting  vainly,  and  at  last  were  driven  headlong  over  the 
Pali.  It  is  a  lonely  and  romantic  spot,  worthy  of  the  death  struggle  of  brave  and 
knightly  warrior  chiefsof  ancient  times. 

I  drove  up  to  the  Pali  and  it  seemed  like  a  beautiful  dream.  On  first  start- 
ing we  drove  through  an  avenue  of  palms ;  further  on  mountains  on  either  side 
covered  with  green  moss,  the  tops  enveloped  in  clouds  of  mist,  the  mist  falling 
around  us  in  little  showers  of  rain,  the  sun  shining  brilliantly,  the  changing  hues 
of  the  foliage,  while  between  us  and  the  highest  mountain  was  a  beautiful  rain- 
bow, which  remained  there  like  a  halo.  Anything  more  exquisite  I  never  expect 
to  see  again.  We  were  obliged  to  leave  our  carriage  when  about  three-quarters 
the  way  to  the  top,  as  the  wind  blows  at  the  summit  with  such  force  that  it  is 


unsafe  to  take  a  carriage  to  the  top.  The  way  is  cut  out  like  an  Alpine  pass  to  allow 
people  to  walk,  and  has  an  iron  rail  by  which  to  hold  one's  self.  I  never  imagined 
the  wind  could  blow  with  such  force  as  it  does  at  this  place  ;  it  is  as  though  the 
spirits  from  the  dead  warriors  who  lost  their  lives  here  were  roused  and 
shrieking  their  fury  at  the  immovable  rocks. 


FTER  leaving  the  Sandwich  Islands,  there  was  nothing  more  of  interest 
to  be  seen  before  reaching  the  Samoa  group,  one  of  the  Navigator 
Islands.  Leaving  Honolulu  the  29th  November,  with  nothing  but  the 
ocean  to  look  upon,  nothing  but  "  water,  water  everywhere,"  one  naturally  turned 
to  one's  fellow-passengers  to  try  and  discover  if  they  possessed  any  marked 
peculiarities,  any  eccentricities  of  character — in  fact  anything  that  would  place 
them  above  the  commonplace,  and  I  found  to  my  delight  that  there  were  a 
number  of  literary  people  on  board,  among  them  Dr.  Julian  Thomas, 
who  is  certainly  neither  dull  nor  commonplace.  He  writes  under  the  nom 
de  plume  of  "  The  Vagabond,"  and  is  well  known  all  over  the  literary  world 
as  the  best  descriptive  writer  in  Australia.  The  nom  de  plume  was  a  well 
chosen  one,  for  he  is  Bohemianism  personified  —  a  Virginian  of  English 
descent,  a  champion  of  the  "  Lost  Cause,"  a  journalist  in  London  and  New 
York,  a  soldier  of  fortune  in  South  America,  a  wanderer  in  the  South 
Seas.  Some  years  back  he  started  his  successful  career  on  the  most  enter- 
prising journal  in  the  British  colonies,  the  Melbourne  Argus.  Adopting 
the  tactics  of  Mr.  James  Greenwood  of  the  Pall  Mall  Gazette,  Dr.  Thomas 
assumed  the  characters  of  an  inmate  of  the  Benevolent  Asylum  and  Model  Lodg- 
ing House,  a  hospital  patient  and  hospital  clerk,  and  a  warder  in  lunatic  asylums. 
He  wrote  on  all  sorts  of  social  subjects,  and  has  effected  many  reforms  with  his 
pen.  Then  in  behalf  of  the  Melbourne  Argus  he  visited  nearly  every  country 
in  the  world.  He  was  in  New  Caledonia  during  the  native  war  of  1878.  After- 
wards he  went  to  Fiji,  China,  Japan,  and  across  to  British  Columbia,  and  on 
returning  to  Australia  received  orders  to  again  visit  the  islands  of  the  Western 
Pacific.  From  New  Caledonia  he  sailed  through  the  New  Hebrides  to  New 
Guinea.  He  was  returning  by  the  "  Mariposa"  from  a  trip  to  England,  to  describe 
for  the  Argus  the  recent  Colonial  Exhibition.  Dr.  Thomas  came  by  the 
Canadian  Pacific  route  across  the  continent.  Many  of  his  writings  are  pub- 
lished in  book  form,  the  latest  work,  "  Cannibals  and  Convicts,"  a  record  of  part  of 
his  experience  in  the  South  Seas.  An  article  appears  weekly  in  the  Argus 
from  his  pen,  to  me  the  most  interesting  part  of  the  paper. 

It  was  my  fortune  to  meet  on  the  "Mariposa"  a  gentleman  to  whom  I  had  a 
letter  of  introduction,    Mr.   G.   W.    Griffin,   United    States    Consul    for  Sydney, 



New  South  Wales.  He  has  written  many  excellent  works,  among  them, 
"Danish  Days,"  "Studies  in  Literature,"  "Memoir  of  Col.  C.  S.  Todd,"  "A 
Visit  to  Stratford-on-Avon  and  Prenticiana."  His  life  has  been  an  event- 
ful one,  full  of  romance,  interest  and  excitement.  Educated  for  the  law, 
he  soon  showed  preference  for  literary  work.  At  that  time  the  Louisville  Journal 
was  edited  by  the  most  popular  newspaper-writing  American,  Mr.  George  D. 
,  Prentice  ;  Mr.  Griffin  contributed  to  this  paper,  and  his  articles  brought  him  under 
the  notice  of  General  Grant.  Charmed  with  the  ability  displayed  in  his  writings. 
Gen.  Grant  sent  for  Mr.  Griffin  one  day,  and  asked  him  if  he  would  go  to  Geneva  as 
representative  of  his  country.  Mr.  Griffin  assented  and  was  about  to  start,  when 
the  President  altered  his  purpose  and  sent  him  instead  to  Copenhagen,  princi- 
pally that  he  might  be  in  the  city  in  which  Grant's  sister  resided.  Mr.  Griffin 
was  the  bearer  of  a  letter  of  introduction  from  the  poet  Longfellow  to  Prof  Geo. 
Stephens.  Prof.  Stephens  is  famous  as  the  discoverer  of  the  complete  Runic 
Alphabet,  as  an  antiquary  of  vast  research,  and  as  the  possessor  of  the  most 
extensive  private  collection  of  books  in  the  world,  a  library  of  120,000  volumes. 
The  other  heart  that  opened  to  receive  Mr.  Griffin  had  been  cast  in  a  very 
different  mould  ;  it  was  that  of  the  Danish  story  teller,  Hans  Christian  Andersen, 
the  friend  of  little  folks  all  the  world  over.  The  weaver  of  fairy  tales  more 
beautiful  than  dreams  soon  spun  a  silken  web  around  the  home  of  the  American 
Consul.  Mr.  Griffin  was  Consul  at  Samoa,  where  he  was  mobbed  by  the  filibusters 
in  1877.  Admiral  Aube,  who  was  then  a  captain  in  the  French  Navy,  restored 
Mr.  Griffin  to  power,  and  secured  for  him  the  protection  of  the  native  Govern- 
ment. Upon  the  arrival  of  the  "Le  Seingnelay"  at  Tahiti,  the  Governor-General 
there  disapproving  of  the  proceedings  of  the  French  ambassador,  took  his  ship  from 
him  and  sent  him  to  Paris  for  trial  by  court-martial.  When  Commander  Aube 
reached  Paris,  instead  of  being  tried  by  court-martial,  he  was  presented  with  the 
thanks  and  gratitude  of  the  American  nation  for  his  services  to  Mr.  Griffin,  and 
promoted  to  the  rank  of  Commodore.  At  a  later  period  he  was  made  an  Admiral, 
and  he  is  now  Secretary  of  the  French  Navy.  I  can  not  attempt  to  give  the 
many  interesting  events  in  Mr.  Griffin's  life — they  alone  would  make  a  book  ;  but 
I  can  assure  my  readers  that  it  was  a  pleasure  to  meet  a  man  of  his  versatile 
talents,  and  I  am  indebted  to  him  for  a  thousand  kindnesses. 

Among  the  passengers  was  Mr.  James  Mills,  Managing  Director  of  the 
Union  Steamship  Co.,  of  New  Zealand.  There  is  a  fleet  of  thirty-five  vessels 
which  run  to  various  points  in  New  Zealand,  Australia,  the  Pacific  Islands,  and 
to  San  Francisco.    These  ships  are  luxuriously  fitted  up.     Archibald  Forbes  says. 


H    a> 


in  a  letter  to  the.  Nineteenth  Century :  "The  'Wairarapa'  of  the  Union  Company 
of  New  Zealand,  is,  to  ray  thinking,  the  most  beautifully  decorated  ship  in  the 
world,  being  spacious,  lofty  and  well  ventilated.  I  have  not  seen  an.  Atlantic 
liner  whose  state-room  accommodation  is  equal  in  completeness,  prettiness  and 
comfort  to  that  which  the  Australian  voyager  will  find  on  some  of  the  best  of  the 
Union  Company  steamers— '  Wairarapa,'  for  instance,  or  the  '  Manapouri.'  "  I  can 
speak  too  for  the  beauty  of  these  ships,  having  had  the  pleasure  of  being  on  one  of 
them  while  in  Auckland,  New  Zealand. 

Mr.  Whitson,  Secretary  of  the  Union  Steamship  Co.,  was  also  among  the 
number  of  literary  people,  he  having  written  a  work  on  New  Zealand.  During  the 
voyage  he  delivered  a  lecture  on  humorous  English  poets,  which  was  excellently 
written  and  delivered.  Among  the  other  pleasant  passengers  from  New 
Zealand  was  Mr.  W.  Davenish  Meares,  of  Christchurch,  New  Zealand,  who  is  the 
best  recounter  of  stories  I  have  ever  seen.  Every  conversation  started  sug- 
gested a  story  to  his  mind,  and  always  beginning  with  "  that  reminds  me,"  we 
were  prepared  for  something  good.  There  were  many  other  pleasant  passengers, 
but  lack  of  space  prevents  me  introducing  them  to  my  readers. 


E  crossed  the  Equator  Saturday,  December  3rd,  about  eight  o'clock 
a.m.  Arrived  at  Tutueillo,  Samoa  Island,  December  8th,  where 
we  made  a  short  stay.  We  jumped  from  Friday,  December  nth, 
to  Sunday,  13th,  losing  Saturday.  In  going  from  east  to  west  there  is  a  day 
lost,  which  can  only  be  regained  by  going  from  west  to  east  again,  when  I  will 
pick  up  the  day  dropped  out  of  my  life  by  having  two  Thursdays  in  succession, 
or  two  Fridays,  two  days  of  some  kind,  together.  The  Captain  kindly  explained 
this  to  me,  which  I  would  take  much  pleasure  in  explaining  to  my  readers,  if  it 
were  not  for  the  kindly  feeling  I  have  towards  the  Captain.  My  explanation 
might  produce  softening  of  the  brain  or  premature  grey  hairs. 

We  arrived  at  Auckland,  New  Zealand,  December  1 3th,  where  we  made 
quite  a  lengthy  stay.  Auckland  is  a  fine  city,  with  wide  streets,  well  paved.  We 
took  a  drive  to  Mount  Eden,  from  the  summit  of  which  there  is  a  magnificent 
view.  Mr.  Griffin  was  Consul  at  Auckland  for  some  time,  and  during  our  stay 
there  he  introduced  me  to  Prince  Paul,  one  of  the  Maori  chiefs  whom  he  knew 
during  his  Consulship  in  New  Zealand.  To  describe  this  extraordinary-looking 
person  would  be  almost  impossible.  His  face  was  tattooed  out  of  all  semblance 
to  a  human  face.  Our  conversation  was  a  very  animated  one  ;  it  consisted  of 
smiles,  and  bows,  and  "oh,  eh,  ah's,"  more  smiles,  grins  and  bows,  and  we  parted, 
mutually  pleased — at  the  parting. 

Mr.  Griffin  took  Dr.  O'Neil,  Miss  O'Neil,  of  New  South  Wales,  and  myself, 
to  call  upon  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Firth  and  their  charming  daughters.  Their  residence 
is  a  very  beautiful  one  in  Auckland,  handsome  grounds,  rare  plants  and  trees. 
While  walking  in  the  grounds  Mrs.  Firth  showed  us  a  cave  in  the  earth  in  which 
could  be  plainly  seen  the  bones  of  dead  and  gone  Maories.  The  ground  upon 
which  Mr.  Firth's  house  stands,  with  hundreds  of  acres  besides,  was  given  him  by 
the  Maories,  It  is  said  that  at  one  time  he  saved  the  life  of  a  Maori  chief,  who 
repaid  him  by  giving  him  a  large  amount  of  land,  on  condition  that  he  should 
live  upon  it.  While  there  we  were  shown  some  very  beautiful  paintings  of  that 
most  magnificent  of  nature's  wonders — the  pink  and  white  terraces  that  were 
destroyed  by  the  volcano  of  the  present  year.  -Mrs.  Firth  told  me  she  heard- the 
reports  like  small  cannon  being  fired,  and  thought  the  ships  in  the  port  were 
firing.     The  mountain,  which  had  lain  asleep  for  ages,  at  last  awoke,  and   in  its 



fury  destroyed  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  all  of  nature's  handiwork.  Thousands 
of  tourists  visited  the  place  yearly  to  see  these  beautiful  terraces,  and  now  not  a 
vestige  remains. 

On  the  evening  of  Friday,  17th  December,  after  having  been  twenty-five 
days  at  sea,  we  were  able  to  discern  the  electric  light  on  the  Australian  coast,  a 
distance  of  sixty  miles.  It  is  the  most  powerful  electric  light  in  the  world.  Such 
a  hearty  cheer  as  went  up  when  it  was  sighted.  Seen  from  that  distance  it 
looked  like  a  faint  red  flame  in  the  sky,  a  beacon  light  welcoming  the  Australians 
back  to  their  native  shores,  and,  I  fancied,  even  sending  forth  a  gleam  of  welcome 
to  me,  a  stranger  in  a  strange  land.  Any  feeling  of  loneliness  which  I  felt  was 
at  once  dispelled  by  the  hearty  hand  clasps  from  many  of  the  passengers, 
welcoming  me  to  their  native  country.  On  the  morning  of  the  i8th  we  slowly 
steamed  into  the  harbor,  which  the  New  South  Wales  people  are  justly  proud  of, 
as  there  is  only  one  other  harbor  in  the  world  that  can  compare  with  it  in  beauty, 
and  that  is  at  Rio-de-Janeiro.  While  going  slowly  up  the  harbor  I  looked  for  the 
first  time  upon  Australian  shores,  upon  the  world  which  was  the  first  to  raise  its 
head  above  the  waters,  the  land  of  gold,  of  promise,  the  home  of  the  kangaroo  and 
the  swan,  the  land  of  flowers  and  palms,  the  seat  of  the  new  empire  founded  by 
the  Anglo-Saxons  under  the  Southern  Cross. 


Ij^^HE  entrance  to  Sydney  harbor  is  alone  worth  the  journey  of  13,000 
ly  miles.  To  say  that  it  is  beautiful  but  faintly  expresses  it.  It  is 
magnificent.  On  entering  the  harbor  there  are  two  barren  rocks,  or 
cliffs,  which  seem  to  guard  the  entrance,  and  are  called  "  The  Heads,"  or 
"  Sydney  Heads."  The  waters  dash  around  the  base  of  these  rocks  in  great 
fury  during  rough  weather,  but  as  soon  as  the  ship  passes  through  the  entrance, 
a  fairy  scene  is  opened  to  the  eye.  There  are  innumerable  bays  which  wind  and 
turn,  disclosing  a  thousand  beauties,  and  as  the  vessel  moves  slowly  along  the 
waters,  the  beauty  seems  almost  unreal,  and  the  ship  an  enchanted  one  ;  but  the 
dream  of  enchantment  is  ended  when  we  arrive  at  the  dock,  and  one  is  brought 
suddenly  from  the  world  of  dreams  to  one  of  reality.  After  saying  "  good-bye" 
to  my  fellow  passengers,  many  with  whom  I  was  sorry  to  part,  I  took  a  carriage 
and  proceeded  to  the  hotel,  or  club,  in  Sydney.  The  first  thing  which  struck  me 
as  being  wholly  unlike  America  was  the  manner  in  which  the  hotels  are  con- 
ducted. Travellers  will  not  find  here  a  long  "  menu  "  from  which  to  chcJose  a 
dinner.  There  is  an  utter  absence  of  "  side  dishes,"  or  "  made  dishes,"  and  at 
first  it  is  rather  startling,  and  the  thought  of  starvation  enters  one's  mind  ;  but  1 
will  reassure  my  readers  by  telling  them  that  if  they  have  unwearied  patience 
and  are  not  troubled  with  bashfulness,  and  will  resign  themselves  to  the  thought 
of  growing  old  during  the  time  which  elapses  from  giving  the  order  until  it  is 
filled,  they  will  probably  arise  from  the  table — well,  at  least,  not  hungry.  The 
least  said  about  the  cooking  in  Australia  the  better.  It  is  neither  English, 
American,  German  or  French.  Ye  gods !  imagine  a  French  epicure  at  an 
Australian  dejeuner! 

Sydney  is  a  fine  city,  with  a  population  of  300,000.  The  University  is  the 
handsomest  and  most  imposing  building  in  any  of  the  colonies,  and  cost  $750,000. 
It  has  a  magnificent  hall,  in  size  equal  to  that  of  Westminster.  There  are  six 
parks  and  beautiful  botanical  gardens,  with  tropical  foliage.  The  Government 
House  is  a  handsome  building,  occupied  by  the  present  Governor-General,  Lord 
Carrington.  The  streets  are  rather  narrow,  but  there  is  an  appearance  of 
solidity  and  wealth  about  the  buildings,  and  one  would  naturally  suppose  they 
would  look  solid,  as  the  walls  are,  in  many  instances,  four  feet  in  thickness  ;  the 
partitions  are  also  the  same  thickness.     They  could  rightly  be  said  to  be    "  built 


oq  z 







upon  a  rock,"  for  the  earth,  or  soil,  or  sand,  owing  to  the  absence  of  rain,  is 
baked  so  hard  that  it  is  difficult  to  distinguish  it  from  rock.  There  are  some 
very  beautiful  buildings  in  Sydney,  built  of  stone  that  somewhat  resembles  Ohio 
free-stone.  But  imagine,  reader,  stone  buildings  and  stone  pavements,  and  the 
heat  at  153°  !  I  looked  longingly  at  the  numerous  yachts  in  the  bay,  but,  upon 
further  consideration,  thought  I  would  submit  to  the  heat  and  dust,  as  there  is  no 
place  in  the  world  where  there  are  as  many  sharks  as  in  Sydney  Harbor,  and  if  a 
boat  capsizes  there  is  little  chance  of  being  saved.  There  are  many  instances 
where  unfortunate  people  have  been  seized  by  these  hideous  monsters.  While 
in  Sydney,  in  one  day  there  were  eleven  sharks  caught,  and  all  lying  on  the 
beach.  The  impression  Sydney  made  upon  my  mind  is  a  strange  one — it  is  of  a 
city  that  was  slowly  being  buried,  as  though  the  dust  from  some  modern  Vesuvius 
was  accumulating  and  settling  like  a  pall  over  its  buildings  and  streets. 

New  South  Wales  was  named  by  Captain  Cook  during  his  first  voyage  of 
discovery  in  1770.  The  great  English  navigator  fancied  he  saw  a  resemblance 
between  the  south  of  Australia  and  Wales,  but  the  division  of  the  territory  into 
five  governing  centres  has  limited  its  application  to  the  part  occupied  by  the 
older  colony.  New  South  Wales  is  situated  on  the  south-east  coast  of  Australia, 
between  the  parellels  of  28°  and  37°  south  latitude,  and  the  141st  and  154th  meridian 
of  east  longitude.  This  colony  is  more  than  three  and  a  half  times  the  size  of 
the  island  of  Great  Britain.  It  will  give  my  readers  an  idea  of  the  magnitude  of 
this  vast  country  when  one  colony  alone  is  more  than  three  and  a  half  times  the 
size  of  Great  Britain. 


i|^UMEROUS  descriptions  have  been  given  by  travellers  and  explorers 
of  the  personal  appearance  of  the  aborigines  of  Australia,  and  the 
accounts  vary  considerably.  The  different  tribes  vary  in  color,  as  is 
found  in  all  the  various  races  in  the  continent  of  Europe.  The  shades  vary,  from 
a  dark  chocolate  brown  to  the  dusky  black  of  the  negro.  The  head  is  well 
shaped  ;  they  have  large,  soft,  lustrous  eyes;  the  body  of  medium  size.  The  face 
is  not  agreeable  to  look  upon.  The  under  jaw  is  large  ;  the  lips  thick  and  heavy. 
In  their  natural  condition  they  are  found  almost  entirely  dependent  on  the  sup- 
plies of  the  forest  to  satisfy  their  daily  wants,  and  when  these  become  scarce 
through  drought,  they  are  reduced  to  the  verge  of  starvation.  Stone  appears  to 
be  the  only  material  used  for  making  axes  and  tomahawks,  and  although  living 
in  a  land  noted  for  the  richness  of  its  earth  treasures,  they  do  not  know  the  use 
of  metals.  They  are  much  inferior  in  intelligence  to  the  Maories  of  New 
Zealand  ;  in  fact,  I  think  they  are  the  lowest  in  intelligence  of  any  of  the  human 
race.  They  are  very  expert  in  the  use  of  the  spear,  which  they  throw  with 
unerring  precision  over  one  hundred  yards.  It  is  a  most  formidable  instrument, 
about  twelve  feet  in  length,  with  a  long  blade,  which  is  often  jagged  like  a  set  of 
shark's  teeth.  They  use  the  "  woomarah,"  a  string  which  from  the  part  held  by 
the  hand  traverses  the  spear  to  the  butt  end,  which  the  string  is  passed  over  and 
brought  back  tight  to  the  hand.  This  aids  the  propulsion,  giving  great  force  and 
greater  velocity.  They  are  very  skilful  in  hurling  the  boomerang,  which  in  the 
air  will  gyrate  for  a  considerable  distance,  turn  round  at  a  certain  angle — 
uncertain,  as  the  beholder  may  deem  it — and  will  unerringly,  and  with  great  force, 
strike  the  object  at  which  they  aim.  In  some  parts  of  the  country  the  boys  and 
girls  are  betrothed  when  born,  that  is,  the  boys  of  one  tribe  are  betrothed  to  the 
girls  of  another,  and  at  puberty,  the  lubras — girls — are  claimed  by  the  "  marked  " 
young  men.  All  the  lubras  are  deficient  of  the  two  joints  of  the  fore  finger  of 
the  left  hand,  which  at  three  months  old  is  taken  off  by  a  hair  ligature,  being 
daily  tightened  till  the  joint  drops  off.  When  the  joint  is  buried,  the  aborigines 
look  upon  it  as  a  distinct  person,  which  will  become  another  native.  The 
women  are  passionately  fond  of  their  children.  They  carry  them  on  their  backs, 
astride  their  shoulders  ;  then  they  hold  on  to  the  mother's  hair,  or  on  the  hip.  It 
is  amusing  to  see  the  mothers  stoop  down,  and  how  naturally  mere  infants  climb 



up  and  perch  themselves  on  their  mothers'  shoulders.  The  young  men,  to 
denote  them  as  marriageable,  have  marks  scored  on  the  shoulder  or  other  parts 
of  the  body,  or  a  front  tooth  knocked  out.  When  the  young  men  arrive  at 
manhood  the  tribe  assembles  in  some  retired  spot  for  a  grand  "corroboree,"  and 
with  great  festivities  proceed  to  mark  them.  Many  of  the  tribes  practice 
circumcision,  and  they  are  all  afraid  of  an  evil  spirit,  which  they  term  "  Browl." 
Before  retiring  at  night  they  make  a  light  and  hunt  about,  calling  out  "Browl," 
"  Browl."  Their  mode  of  burial  differs  in  different  tribes.  In  the  north  the 
body  is  bound  up  in  paper  bark,  smoked  and  placed  in  the  branches  of  the  trees, 
from  eight  to  ten  feet  from  the  ground.  It  is  left  there  during  the  wet  season 
until  the  flesh  is  rotted.  The  friends  then  return  and  make  a  fire  under  the 
bones,  which  are  collected  and  carried  away.  They  never  cultivate  the  ground, 
but  are  nomadic  in  their  habits,  and  it  is  difficult  to  understand  how  they  exist, 
with  no  clothing  and  no  shelter  beyond  that  of  a  bark  placed  against  a  log. 
They  eat  roots,  grubs,  worms,  the  larvae  of  ants,  land  crabs  found  in  the  water 
holes,  and  fish.  They  are  partial  to  snakes,  lizards,  and  the  iguana.  They  readily 
raise  fire  by  rapidly  turning  round  between  the  palms  of  the  hands  a  stick 
sharpened  to  a  point  and  inserted  into  a  flat  piece  of  hard  wood,  around  which 
are  dried  leaves.  The  dress  of  the  men  consists  of  a  girdle  about  an  inch  wide  ; 
the  women  adopt  the  same  severely  plain  style. 

Men,  women  and  children  all  wear  a  stick,  about  six  inches  in  length, 
passed  through  the  centre  cartilage  of  the  nose.  In  Queensland  and  the  Northern 
Territory,  in  any  settlement,  one  can  see  daily  a  dusky  daughter  of  Eve  lying 
prone  on  her  face,  while  another  happy  child  of  nature  is  minutely  investigating 
her  sister's  head,  exactly  as  is  the  habit  of  the  monkey,  and  woe  to  any  unlucky 
parasite,  should  it  not  elude  pursuit,  for  it  literally  becomes  mince-meat !  Many 
of  the  young  girls  just  coming  to  womanhood  are  very  pretty,  are  symmetrically 
poised,  and  walk  majestically,  their  limbs  never  being  trammelled  with  fashionable 
habiliments.  A  sable  belle  of  Palmerston,  who  numbers  fifteen  summers,  is  very 
much  admired,  as  she  is  not  altogether  deficient  in  accomplishments.  In  the 
most  winning  way  she  says,  "  Give  me  a  banana,"  which  being  placed  on  the 
ground,  she  picks  up  with  the  great  and  second  toe  of  either  foot,  passes  it  to 
her  mouth,  and  proceeds  to  eat  with  the  greatest  ease.  Many  of  the  blacks  of 
Queensland,  the  Northern  Territory  and  Western  Australia,  are  at  the  present 
time  cannibals.  A  missionary  informed  me  that  at  Moreton  Bay,  a  boy  having 
died,  several  men  gathered  round  the  body,  removed  the  head  and  thick  outer 
skin,  which  was  rolled  upon  a  stake  and  dried  over  a  slow  fire.     During  this 


horrible  ceremony  the  father  and  mother  stood  by  loudly  lamenting.  The  thighs 
were  then  roasted  and  eaten  by  the  parents.  The  liver,  heart  and  entrails  were 
then  divided  amongst  the  warriors,  who  carried  away  portions  on  their  spears, 
while  the  skin  and  bone,  together  with  the  skull,  were  rolled  up  and  carried  about 
by  the  parents  in  their  grass  bags.  Within  the  last  few  months  a  number  of 
Chinese  miners  in  Northern  Queensland  have  been  killed  and  eaten  by  the 
natives !  The  natives  are  said  to  prefer  Chinamen  to  white  men,  probably  in 
consequence  of  the  Chinese  being  saturated  with  opium  ;  it  serves  as  a  sauce. 

The  land  of  the  Southern  Cross,  whose  dusky  inhabitants,  until  a  hundred 
years  ago,  were  lulled  to  sleep  by  the  waters  of  the  South  Pacific — the  land  of  the 
fragrant  eucalyptus  and  flowering  wattle — we  in  thought  go  back  to  the  time  when 
the  native  blacks  sat  round  their  camp  fires  telling  their  weird  tales,  whispering 
in  hushed  tones  as  the  darkness  drew  near  ;  then,  as  the  wild  instinct  arose,  some 
outlet  must  be  given  to  their  savage  natures,  and  the  "  corroboree  "  is  called,  the 
sacred  fire  is  lit ;  then  strange  unearthly  music  reverberates  through  the  forest, 
and  hundreds  of  savages  gather  round  the  fire  with  bodies  covered  with  clay  to 
represent  human  skeletons  ;  then  begins  their  slow,  monotonous  dance,  their 
arms  moving,  with  bodies  swaying,  the  droning,  melancholy  sounds  echoing 
through  the  air,  keeping  time  to  the  strange  music  ;  the  music  grows  a  little 
faster,  the  motions  a  little  quicker,  the  rapid  movements  and  wild  music  wilder ; 
faster  and  more  furious  grow  the  sounds,  the  demoniac  yells  of  the  excited 
throng ;  the  very  air  is  filled  with  angry  spirits  ;  the  black,  gleaming  faces  of  the 
revellers  are  worked  almost  to  frenzy,  until  at  last  they  drop  exhausted,  the  fire 
burns  dimly,  and  the  wild  savages  are  at  rest  in  a  solitude  wilder  even  than  their 
savage  natures,  more  sombre  than  the  dusky  children  she  has  brought  forth. 


ZN  the  year  i860  a  merchant  of  Melbourne  offered  $5,000  for  the  furtherance 
of  discovery  in  Australia  ,  the  Royal  Society  of  Victoria  undertook  to 
organize  an  expedition  for  the  purpose  of  crossing  the  continent,-  and 
collected  subscriptions  to  the  amount  of  $17,000;  the  Victorian  Government 
voted  $30,000,  and  spent  an  additional  sum  of  $15,000  in  bringing  twenty-six 
camels  from  Arabia.  Very  complete  arrangements  were  made.  Robert  O'Hara 
Burke  was  chosen  leader.  M.  J.  Wills,  an  accomplished  young  astronomer,  was 
sent  to  take  charge  of  the  costly  instruments  and  to  make  all  the  scientific 

The  stories  told  of  early  explorers  are  often  sad,  but  I  think  the  one  of 
Burke  and  Wills  the  .saddest  of  all.  There  were  two  other  scientific  men  and 
eleven  subordinates,  with  twenty-eight  horses  to  carry  the  baggage.  On  the  20th 
of  August,  i860,  the  whole  party  set  out  from  the  Royal  Park,  Melbourne, 
Burke  heading  the  procession  on  a  little  grey  horse.  The  Mayor  made  a  short 
speech,  wishing  them  God-speed  ;  the  explorers  shook  hands  with  their  friends, 
and,  amid  the  cheers  of  thousands  of  spectators,  they  moved  off.  The  journey, 
as  far  as  the  Murrumbedgee,  lay  through  settled  country  and  was  without  interest, 
but  at  that  place  quarrelling  began,  and  Burke  dismissed  Landells,  who  had  charge 
of  the  camels,  and  secured  the  services  of  a  man  whom  he  met  at  a  sheep 
station,  by  the  name  of  Wright,  to  fill  his  place.  Wright  was  wholly  unqualified 
to  fill  this  position,  and  was  the  cause  of  all  the  disasters  which  followed.  On 
leaving  the  Murrumbedgee  they  ascended  the  Darling  till  they  reached  Men- 
indie,  the  place  from  which  Hirst  had  set  out  sixteen  years  before.  Here  Burke 
left  Wright  with  half  the  expedition,  intending  himself  to  push  on  rapidly  and  to 
be  followed  up  more  leisurely  by  Wright.  Burke  and  Wills,  with  six  men,  and 
half  the  camels  and  horses,  set  off  through  a  miserable  country,  covered  with  a 
kind  of  grass  which  poisoned  the  horses.  They  came  to  Cooper's  Creek,  where 
they  formed  a  depot  and  lived  for  .some  time,  waiting  for  Wright,  who,  however, 
did  not  appear.  But  Burke  grew  tired  of  waiting,  and  as  he  was'now  near  the 
centre  of  Australia,  he  determined  to  make  a  bold  dash  across  to  the  Gulf  of 
Carpentaria.  He  left  one  of  his  men  called  Brake  and  three  assistants,  with  six 
camels  and  twelve  horses,  giving  them  instructions  to  remain  for  three  months, 
and  if  within  that  time  he  did  not  return,  they  might  consider  him  lost,  and  would 



then  be  at  liberty  to  return  to  Menindie.  On  the  i6th  December,  Burke  and  Wills, 
along  with  two  men  named  King  and  Gray,  started  on  their  perilous  journey, 
taking  with  them  six  camels  and  one  horse,  and  provisions  to  last  for  three 
months.  They  followed  the  broad  current  of  Cooper's  Creek  for  some  distance, 
and  then  struck  off  to  the  north  till  they  reached  a  stream  which  they  called 
Eyre  Creek.  There  they  obtained  abundant  supplies  of  water,  and  kept  along 
its  banks  till  it  turned  to  the  eastward  ;  then  leaving  it  they  turned  due  north 
through  forests  of  boxwood,  alternating  with  plains  well  watered  and  richly 
covered  with  grass.  Six  weeks  after  leaving  Cooper's  Creek  they  came  upon  a 
fine  stream  which  they  named  "  Cloncurry,"  and  following  its  course  they  found 
it  entered  a  large  river,  on  whose  banks  they  found  the  most  luxuriant  vegetation, 
and  frequent  clusters  of  palm  trees.  They  felt  sure  that  it  flowed  into  the  Gulf 
of  Carpentaria,  and,  therefore,  by  keeping  close  to  it  they  had  nothing  to  fear. 
But  they  had  brought  only  three  months'  provisions  with  them  ;  more  than  half 
that  time  had  elapsed  and  they  were  still  150  miles  from  the  sea.  Burke  now 
lost  no  time,  but  hurried  on  so  fast  that  one  after  another  of  the  camels  sank 
exhausted,  and  when  all  the  camels  had  given  out,  Burke  and  Wills  took  their 
only  horse  to  carry  a  small  quantity  of  provisions,  and  leaving  Gray  and  King 
behind,  set  out  by  themselves  on  foot.  They  had  to  cross  several  patches  of 
swampy  ground,  and  the  horse  becoming  bogged,  was  unable  to  go  further.  Still 
Burke  and  Wills  hurried  on  by  themselves  till  they  reached  a  narrow  inlet  on  the 
Gulf  of  Carpentaria,  and  found  that  the  river  they  had  been  following  was  the 
Flinders,  whose  mouth  had  been  discovered  by  Capt.  Stokes  in  1842.  They 
were  anxious  to  see  the  open  sea,  but  this  would  have  required  a  couple  of  days, 
and  their  provisions  were  already  exhausted,  and  they  were  obliged  to  hasten 
back  as  quickly  as  possible.  The  pangs  of  hunger  overtook  them  before  they 
could  reach  the  place  where  King  and  Gray  had  remained  with  the  provisions. 
Burke  killed  a  snake  and  ate  part  of  it,  but  he  took  ill  immediately  after,  and 
when  at  last  they  reached  the  provisions  he  was  not  able  to  go  forward  as 
quickly  as  it  was  necessary  to  do  if  they  wished  to  be  safe.  They  recovered  the 
horse  and  camels,  which  had  been  refreshed  by  the  rest,  and  by  easy  stages 
they  moved  south  towards  home.  But  their  hurried  journey  to  the  north  under 
a  tropical  sun  had  told  severely  on  their  constitutions.  Gray  became  ill,  and  it 
was  now  necessary  to  be  so  careful  with  the  provisions  that  he  had  little  chance  of 
regaining  his  strength.  One  evening  after  they  had  come  to  a  halt  he  was  found 
sitting  behind  a  tree  eating  a  little  mixture  he  had  made  for  himself  of  flour  and 
water.      Burke  accused  him  of  stealing  the  provisions   and  gave   him  a  severe 


thrashing.      He  seems  never  to  have  rallied   after   this,    and   whilst  the  party 
moved  forward  he  was  slowly  sinking.     Towards  the  end  of  March  they  killed 
a  camel,  dried  its  flesh,  and  then  went  forward.     At  the  beginning  of  April  this 
was  gone  and  they  killed  their  horse.     Gray  now  lay  down,  saying  he  could  not 
go  on.     Burke  said  he  was  "shamming,"  and  left  him.      But  Wills'  gentle  counsel 
prevailed  and  they  returned  and  brought  him  forward.      But  he  could  only  go  a 
little  further  ;  the  poor  fellow  breathed  his  last  a  day  or  two  after  and  was  buried 
in  the  wilderness.      Burke  regretted  his  harshness,  all  the  more  as  he  was  quickly 
sinking  himself.      Both  he  and  Wills  were  utterly  worn  out ;  they  were  thin  and 
meagre,  and  so  weak  that  they  tottered  rather  than  walked.     The  last  few  miles 
were  very,  very  weary,  but,  at  last,  on  the  21st  April,  they  came  in  sight  of  the 
depot,  four  months  and  a  half  after  leaving  it.      Imagine  their  consternation  on 
seeing  no  sign  of  the  people  about  the  place,  and  as  they  dropped  down  on  the 
spot  at  sunset,  their  hearts  sank  when  they  found  a  note  stating  that  Brake  had 
left  only  that  very  morning,  and  was  seven  hours  march  away.     The  three  men 
looked  at  one  another  in   blank  dismay  ;  they  were  so  worn  out  that  they  could 
not  move  forward  with  the  hope  of  overtaking  the  party.     On  looking  round  they 
saw  the  word  "  Dig"  cut  on  a  tree,  and  when  they  turned  up  the  soil  they  found 
a  small  supply  of  provisions.     The  party   that   had   been  left  in   charge   of  the 
camp  had  remained  a  month  and  a  half  longer  than  they  had  been  told  to  wait, 
hoping  for  the  return  of  Burke  and  Wills,  but  their  own   provisions   becoming 
scarce,  and  no  sign  of  the  man   Wright,  who  had  been  told  to  follow  closely  on, 
Brake  thought   it  unsafe  to  remain   there  longer,    and    started    off    the    very 
day  poor   Burke  and  Wills  arrived   at  the  camp,    weary  and   hungry.     On  the 
evening  they  entered  the  camp,  after  having  found  the  provisions  at  the  foot  of 
the  tree,  the  three  men,  Burke,  Wills  and  King,  made  a  hearty  supper ;   then  for 
a  couple  of  days  they  rested  their  weary  bodies      But  it  was  dangerous  to  remain 
long,  for  at  the  best  the   provisions  would  only  last  to  take  them  safely  back  to 
the  River  Darling.      Burke  wished  to  go  to  Adelaide,  because  at  Mount  Hopeless 
there  was  a  large  sheep  station,  and  he  thought  it  could  not  be  more  than    1 50 
miles  away.     Wills  was  opposed  to  this.     "  It  is  true,"  he  said,   "  Menindie  is 
350  miles  away,  but  then  we  know  the  road  and  are  sure  of  water  all  the  way." 
Burke  could  not  be  persuaded  and  they  set  out  for  Mount  Hopeless.      Following 
Cooper's  Creek   for  many  miles,  they  entered  a   region   of  frightful  barrenness. 
Here,  as  one  of  the  camels  became  too  weak  to  go   further,  they  were  forced  to 
kill  it  and  dry  its  flesh.     They  followed  the  creek  into  marshy  thickets,  made  a 
halt  and  found  they  had  scarcely  any   provisions  left,  while   their  clothes  were 


falling  to  pieces.  Their  only  hope  was  to  reach  Mount  Hopeless  as  speedily  as 
possible  ;  they  shot  their  last  camel,  and  whilst  Burke  and  King  were  drying  its 
flesh,  Wills  struck  out  to  find  Mount  Hopeless,  but  no  one  knew  where  to  look 
for  it,  and  after  trudging  over  the  dreary  wastes,  he  came  back  unsuccessful.  A 
short  rest  was  taken,  and  then  they  all  started  southward,  determined  this  time 
to  reach  the  Mount.  But  they  were  too  weak  to  travel  fast,  and  wandered  on, 
day  after  day,  over  the  dreary  plains,  and  still  no  sign  of  a  hill,  till  at  length, 
within  fifty  miles  of  Mount  Hopeless,  they  gave  in.  Had  they  only  gone  but  a 
little  farther  they  would  have  seen  the  summit  of  the  hill,  but  just  at  this  point 
they  lost  hope  and  turned  to  go  back.  Again  a  weary  journey  and  they  reached 
Cooper's  Creek,  but  now  with  provisions  for  only  a  day  or  two.  Burke  said  he 
had  heard  the  natives  of  Cooper's  Creek  lived  chiefly  on  the  seed  of  a  plant 
they  called  the  nardoo,  and  if  they  could  find  a  native  tribe  they  might  learn 
where  to  find  the  seed.  Accordingly,  Burke  and  King  set  out  to  find  a  native 
encampment,  and  finding  one,  they  were  kindly  received  by  the  blacks,  who 
showed  them  how  to  gather  the  little  black  seeds  from  a  kind  of  grass.  They 
returned  to  Wills  and  began  at  once  to  gather  the  seed,  but  found  that  they 
could  scarcely  find  enough  for  two  meals  a  day  by  working  from  morning  till 
night,  and  when  evening  came  they  had  to  clean,  roast  and  grind  it,  and  although 
it  was  nutritious  for  the  blacks,  it  was  not  so  for  them.  It  made  them  sick  and 
gave  them  no  strength.  It  seems  that  fate  was  against  them,  for  while  they 
were  at  this  place  a  party  visited  the  camp,  intending  to  bring  them  relief,  but 
when  they  arrived  there  they  saw  no  sign  of  them,  although  the  unfortunate 
men  had  been  there  only  a  few  days  before.  Burke  thought  that  by  this  time  a 
relief  party  might  have  reached  the  camp,  and  Wills  offered  to  go  and  see  if 
anyone  was  there.  He  started  by  himself,  and  after  three  or  four  days  reached 
the  place,  to  find  it  deserted.  He  could  find  no  trace  of  its  having  been  recently 
visited,  and  turned  back  again  to  share  the  doom  of  his  companions.  He  now 
began  to  endure  fearful  pangs  of  hunger  ;  one  evening  he  found  an  encampment 
that  had  been  abandoned  by  the  natives,  and  around  the  fire  were  some  fish 
bones  which  he  greedily  picked.  Next  day  he  saw  two  small  fish  floating  dead 
upon  a  pool,  and  they  made  a  delicious  meal  for  the  poor  fellow.  He  was 
rapidly  sinking  from  hunger,  when  suddenly  he  met  a  native  tribe.  The  black 
men  were  exceedingly  kind  ;  one  carried  his  bundle,  another  helped  him  along, 
and  they  led  the  gaunt  and  emaciated  white  man  to  their  camp.  They  gave  him 
a  little  food,  and  whilst  he  was  eating  he  saw  a  great  quantity  of  fish  on  the  fire  ; 
for  a  few  minutes  he  wondered  if  they  could  possibly  be  for  him  ;  at  length  they 




LO  -" 
CD  ^ 
00  2 













were  cooked  and  a  large  supply  set  before  him.  The  natives  gathered  around 
him  and  clapped  their  hands  with  delight  when  they  saw  him  eat  heartily.  He 
stayed  with  them  four  days,  and  then  set  out  to  bring  his  friends  to  enjoy  like- 
wise this  ample  hospitality.  It  took  him  some  days  to  reach  .the  place  where  he 
had  left  them,  but  when  they  heard  his  good  news  they  lost  no  time  in  starting  to 
the  camp  of  the  natives.  They  were  weak  and  travelled  very  slowly,  and  when  they 
reached  the  camp  the  natives  were  gone.  Their  feebleness  overcame  them  and 
they  sank  down  in  despair.  All  day  they  tried  hard  to  prepare  nardoo  seed,  but 
their  strength  was  too  far  gone,  and  now  it  was  a  grim  fight  with  starvation. 
Wills'  mind  began  to  wander,  and  he  wrote  a  letter  to  his  father.  Dr.  Wills,  of 
Ballarat,  saying,  "  I  think  I  will  live  four  or  five  days."  Burke  thought  now  that 
their  only  chance  was  to  find  the  blacks,  and  he  and  King  set  out  for  that  purpose. 
They  did  not  want  to  leave  poor  Wills,  but  no  other  course  was  possible.  They 
laid  him  softly  within  the  hut,  and  placed  at  his  head  enough  nardoo  to  last  him 
eight  days.  Wills  asked  Burke  to  take  his  watch  and  the  letter  he  had  written 
to  his  father ;  the  two  men  pressed  his  hands,  smoothed  his  couch  tenderly  for 
the  last  time,  and  set  out.  There,  in  the  silence  of  the  wilderness,  alone,  with 
only  the  trees  to  sigh  their  regret,  he  died.  Burke  and  King  walked  on  their 
desperate  errand.  On  the  second  day  Burke  lay  down,  saying  he  could  go  no 
further.  King  entreated  him  to  make  another  effort ;  he  dragged  himself  to  a 
clump  of  bushes,  where  he  stretched  his  limbs  wearily.  He  asked  King  to  take 
his  watch  and  pocket-book,  and  if  possible,  to  give  them  to  his  friends  in  Mel- 
bourne. He  asked  King  to  remain  with  him  until  he  was  dead  ;  he  would  like 
some  one  with  him  at  the  last.  He  spoke  with  difficulty,  but  told  King  not  to 
bury  him,  but  to  let  him  lie  above  ground  with  his  pistol  in  his  hand.  They 
passed  a  dreary,  lonesome  night,  and  in  the  morning  Burke's  life  was  ended. 
King  wandered  for  some  time  forlorn,  but  stumbled  upon  an  encampment  where 
the  natives  had  left  some  nardoo  seed. 

When  Wright  and  Brake  returned  to  Victoria  with  the  news  that  there 
was  no  sign  of  them  at  the  depot,  all  the  colonies  showed  their  solicitude 
by  organizing  relief  parties,  to  start  at  once,  thinking  they  might  still  be 
alive.  Queensland  offered  ^500  to  assist  the  search.  In  following  the  course 
of  Cooper's  Creek  they  were  led  to  the  district  where  Burke  and  Wills 
had  died.  Several  natives  brought  them  to  a  hut  where  King  was  sitting, 
pale  and  haggard,  and  wasted  to  a  shadow.  He  was  so  weak  that  he  could 
scarcely  speak,  but  after  a  day  or  two  of  good  food  his  strength  slightly 
came  back.  They  proceeded  to  the  spot  where  the  body  of  poor  Wills  lay,  and 


interred  it  decently.  Then  they  found  the  thicket  where  the  bones  of  Burke  lay, 
with  the  rusted  pistol  in  his  hand,  and  wrapping  a  Union  Jack  around  them, 
dug  a  grave.  When  King  returned  and  related  the  sad  story,  the  Victorian 
Government  sent  a. party  to  bring  the  remains  of  Burke  and  Wills  to  Melbourne, 
where  they  received  the  melancholy  honors  of  a  public  funeral,  amid  the  general 
mourning  of  the  whole  colony. 

I  was  much  interested  in  this  sad  story,  as  some  part  of  it  was  told  to  me  on 
the  ship  on  my  journey  across  the  Pacific,  one  of  the  passengers  remembering 
well  when  the  expedition  started  which  ended  so  sadly.  I  went  to  see  the 
monument,  which  stands  on. Spring  Street,  erected  to  the  memory  of  the  two 
explorers.  It  is  a  large  monument,  with  the  life-size  figures  of  Burke  and  Wills. 
On  each  of  the  four  sides  of  the  pedestal  is  cut  the  four  events  in  their  journey — 
the  triumphal  start  on  one  side,  the  return  to  the  deserted  camp,  and  the  tree 
with  the  word  "  Dig,"  and  at  last  the  death  of  the  poor  fellows.  The  letter 
which  Wills  wrote  to  his  father  I  have  seen  in  the  museum  at  Melbourne. 



"^HE  desire  to  possess  gold  is  a  strong — perhaps  the  strongest — passion  in 
the  heart  of  man.  The  hardships  endured  to  get  it  seem  almost 
beyond  human  endurance.  I  do  not  refer  to  speculators,  to  stock 
brokers,  to  railway  kings,  but  to  the  men  who  started  out  with  pick,  shovel  and 
pan,  and  dug  the  earth  for  this  treasure — here,  where  mental  acquirements  were 
of  no  avail,  but  where  physical  endurance,  patience  and  hardihood  were  the 
necessary  characteristics. 

From  the  years  1844  to  1848  New  South  Wales  experienced  great  depression. 
Hot  winds  and  floods  d^troyed  the  crops  and  ruined  the  farmers.  Among  the 
most  unfortunate  of  these  squatters  was  Edward  Hargraves.  He  had  been  in 
the  colony  for  twenty  years,  and  expected  to  be  in  a  position  of  comfort,  but  this 
ruinous  season  dispelled  his  dreams.  Just  about  that  time  gold  was  accidentally 
discovered  in  California.  Hargraves  made  up  his  mind  to  try  his  fortunes  in 
America,  and  embarked  for  California.  After  a  great  deal  of  hard  work  and 
disappointment  he  succeeded  in  coming  upon  some  very  satisfactory  ground,  but 
during  his  journeyings  around  the  Sierras,  he  noticed  that  the  California  gold 
fields  bore  a  singular  resemblance  to  a  portion  of  the  Bathurst  district  in  New 
South  Wales.  In  the  Sierras  he  noticed  bold  peaks  of  granite,  while  in  the  Blue 
Mountains  of  New  South  Wales  the  same  characteristics  were  present.  Even 
the  color  of  the  soil  was  the  same.  Hargraves  thought  to  himself  that  if  any 
faith  could  be  placed  in  resemblances,  gold  fields  certainly  existed  in  Australia. 
He  wrote  to  a  friend  in  Sydney  :  "  I  am  forcibly  impressed  that  I  have  been  in  a 
gold  region  in  New  South  Wales,  within  300  miles  of  Sydney,  and  unless  you 
knew  how  to  find  it  you  might  live  for  a  century  in  the  region  and  know  nothing 
of  its  existence." 

He  had  a  friend  who  tried  to  persuade  him  to  remain  in  America,  and  said 
to  him  :  "  Do  you  suppose  that  you  have  only  to  go  to  Australia  and  immediately 
find  out  what  all  the  geologists  have  been  unable  to  discover  ?  They  have 
searched  these  mountains,  and  if  they  could  have  made  their  fortunes  by  finding 
a  gold  field,  you  may  be  sure  they  would  have  done  so  long  before  this."  Har- 
graves was  not  at  all  convinced  by  his  friend's  argument,  and  started  on  his 
homeward  journey  across  the  Pacific.  While  on  the  ship  he  became  eager  and 
excited,  and  dilated  to  the  passengers  on  his  expectations.      But  they  only  shook 



their  heads  and  smiled  sadly,  and  at  last  they  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
man  was  insane.  After  a  few  experiences  of  this  kind  he  resolved  to  keep  silence 
on  the  subject,  perceiving  how  improbable  his  theory  appeared  to  others. 

In  January,  185 1,  Hargraves  arrived  in  Sydney,  and  proceeded  to  visit  a 
few  friends.  He  spoke  of  his  plans,  but  they,  too,  treated  him  as  a  visionary. 
He  was  obliged  to  borrow  money  from  men  who  regarded  him  with  suspicion, 
and,  although  he  promised  to  pay  the  debt  in  a  few  months,  he  was  obliged  to 
pay  over  a  hundred  per  cent,  for  the  loan  of  a  few  pounds,  with  which  he  bought 
a  horse  and  a  supply  of  provisions.  He  could  not  prevail  upon  any  friend  to 
accompany  him,  and  being  too  poor  to  pay  for  assistance,  he  started  alone  on  his 
journey  to  find  the  gold  fields  that  he  was  sure  existed,  but  which  his  friends 
thought  existed  only  in  his  imagination.  On  the  second  day  he  began  the  ascent 
of  the  Blue  Mountains  by  the  Bathurst  road.  In  front  of  him  stood  the 
tremendous  rocks  of  the  range,  that  seemed  to  bar  all  entrance  beyond.  On  the 
other  side  of  the  plateau  he  passed  through  the  Vale  of  the  Clwyd,  and  descended 
the  face  of  the  cliffs  by  that  alarming  and  extraordinary  road  known  as  Sir 
Thomas  Mitchell's  Pass.  Beyond  this  lay  the  beautiful  country  occupied  by  the 
.squatters  of  the  Bathurst  district,  and  on  the  next  part  of  his  journey  travellers 
were  more  numerous.  Inns  were  placed  at  intervals  of  ten  or  twelve  miles  along 
the  road ;  but  in  every  one  of  these  places  a  general  feeling  of  depression  was 
evident.  One  of  the  inn-keepers  was  complaining  of  the  state  of  depression  in 
all  the  country,  and  Hargraves  could  not  refrain  from  hinting  at  the  object  of  his 
journey.  "  Do  you  know,"  said  he,  "  that  the  reason  I  have  come  all  the  way 
from  California  is  to  change  all  that,  and  bring  about  a  better  state  of  affairs." 
On  hearing  his  scheme  the  landlord  could  not  forbear  a  smile  of  incredulity.  He 
had  heard  of  many  foolish  enterprises  designed  to  raise  the  country  from  its 
depression,  but  this,  he  said,  was  the  maddest  project  he  had  yet  heard.  Har- 
graves was  not  to  be  discouraged  and  resumed  his  journey.  Owing  to  the 
denseness  of  the  forest  it  was  impossible  to  see  far  ahead,  and  in  trying  a  short 
cut  to  Guzong,  he  lost  his  way  in  the  bush.  Darkness  overtook  him,  and  he 
groped  about  in  the  woods  for  several  hours.  At  last  he  succeeded  in  getting 
the  road  again,  and  reached  Guzong  safely.  But  this  little  misadventure  caused 
him  to  feel  that  perhaps  he  was  not  so  well  acquainted  with  the  country  as  he  had 
imagined.  He  was  obliged  to  inquire  for  a  guide  to  take  him  through  the  thick 
forest  to  the  valley  of  Summerhill  Creek,  which  was  his  destination.  Mrs.  Lester, 
the  landlady  of  the  Guzong  inn,  was  much  interested  in  the  object  of  his  expecta- 
tions, although  not  hopeful  about  the  result.     She  told  Hargraves  that  her  son 

Union    Bank, 



knew  the  country  well,  and  would  be  willing  to  act  as  guide.  On  the  morning  of 
February  12,  1851,  Hargraves  and  his  guide  started  from  the  inn  on  horseback, 
carrying  a  tin  dish,  a  trowel,  and  a  small  pick.  It  was  midsummer,  when  the 
almost  tropical  rays  of  the  sun  make  the  least  exertion  oppressive.  They  had  a 
journey  before  them  of  great  difficulty,  for  their  way  lay  along  the  dry  bed  of  the 
creek,  across  which  trees,  stones  and  rock  were  piled  in  great  confusion.  Not  a 
word  was  spoken  as  they  pursued  their  journey,  for  the  mind  of  Hargraves  was 
occupied  by  the  most  intense  strain.  He  knew  that  the  events  of  an  hour  or  two 
would  determine  his  destiny — whether  he  should  figure  before  the  world  as  a 
great  discoverer,  or  as  a  disappointed  visionary.  At  length,  after  fifteen  miles 
of  arduous  travelling,  Hargraves  espied  a  portion  of  the  country  which  had  so  long 
been  present  to  him  in  visions.  His  memory  had  not  deceived  him,  for  there 
were  the  slates,  the  trap  rocks,  and  granite,  while  all  around  he  could  see  heaps 
of  gravel  and  pieces  of  quartz.  The  journey  had  almost  exhausted  his  strength, 
and  in  spite  of  his  excitement  and  eagerness,  Hargraves  quietly  sat- down  on  the 
grass.  He  pointed  to  the  banks  of  the  creek,  saying,  "  Now,  at  last,  we  are  in 
the  gold  fields  ;  in  a  short  time  I  shall  test  whether  they  are  worth  anything  or 
not.  Meanwhile,  the  first  thing  to  be  done  is  to  make  dinner."  They  turned 
their  horses  loose  and  prepared  a  rude  meal,  which  they  ate  in  silence.  But 
Hargraves  could  not  long  maintain  his  calmness.  He  swallowed  his  food  as 
quickly  as  possible,  and,  springing  to  his  feet,  he  seized  the  implements.  In 
front  of  him  he  saw  a  bank  of  red  earth  and  clay,  mixed  with  half-formed  stone 
and  slate.  Having  scratched  off  the  surface  with  the  pick,  he  brought  out  a  little 
earth  and  gravel  with  his  trowel.  Then,  placing  it  in  the  pan,  he  went  to  a  water 
hole,  mixed  it  up  and  washed  out  the  earth.  There,  at  the  bottom  of  the  pan,  he 
could  distinguish  just  one  small  grain  of  gold.  "  There  it  is,"  he  exclaimed, 
and  showed  it  to  his  companion.  They  washed  out  five  panfulls,  and  in  four  of 
them  they  found  gold.  "  This  is  a  memorable  day  in  the  history  of  New  South 
Wales,"  said  Hargraves,  as  he  stood  with  the  dripping  prospect  pan.  Then  he 
exclaimed:  "For  this  day's  work  I  shall  be  created  a  baronet,  you  will  be 
knighted,  and  my  old  horse  will  be  stuffed  with  straw  and  sent  to  the  British 
museum  !  "  The  youth  took  this  seriously,  as  he  acknowledged  afterwards  ;  for 
it  seemed  to  him  that  the  man  who  could  find  gold  in  such  a  wilderness  could 
bring  about  almost  anything.  After  a  long  day  of  hard  work  and  excitement, 
they  returned,  very  much  exhausted,  to  the  inn,  where  Hargraves  immediately 
wrote  a  memorandum  relating  what  had  occurred  during  the  day.  He  intended 
to  give  this  to  the  Colonial  Secretary,  but  he  wished  to  determine  first  the  extent 


of  the  area  in  which  gold  could  be  found.  Next  day  he  set  out  again.  They 
had  eighty  miles  to  travel  before  reaching  the  Macquarie  River.  Margraves 
hastened  on  his  work  as  much  as  possible,  for  he  was  already  beginning  to  be 
troubled  with  that  nightmare  of  all  discoverers — the  dread  of  being  anticipated  in 
the  important  announcement.  Hargraves  made  his  way  to  another  district 
further  on  towards  the  interior,  which  he  remembered  as  bearing  a  close  resem- 
blance to  a  gold  field.  Having  travelled  a  distance  of  more  than  loo  miles  from 
Bathurst,  he  arrived  at  Dubbo,  and  here  he  visited  a  friend  whom  he  knew, 
named  Cruikshank.  The  house  of  his  friend  stood  immediately  in  front  of  a 
stream  called  Mitchell's  Creek,  and  Hargraves  boldly  asserted  to  him  that  he 
would  find  gold  within  twenty  yards  of  the  door.  The  man  was  utterly  incredu- 
lous, but  Mrs.  Cruikshank  was  eager  for  a  trial.  They  stepped  out  of  the  door- 
way, and  Hargraves,  after  washing  a  panful  of  earth,  showed  them,  to  their 
astonishment,  several  small  grains  of  gold.  The  woman  was  delighted,  and  in  a 
few  days  she  had  gathered  enough  gold  to  make  several  rings,  which  she  kept  as 
a  memento  of  the  discovery  of  the  Australian  gold  fields.  Hargraves  had  now 
seen  enough  to  convince  him  of  the  importance  of  his  discovery,  and  set  out  on 
his  return  journey  to  Sydney.  On  being  shown  into  the  office  of  the  Colonial 
Secretary,  he  produced  a  small  box  full  of  fine  gold  dust,  and  stated  that  it  was 
the  produce  of  a  few  days'  work  in  a  district  which  he  had  discovered  in  New 
South  Wales.  Mr. — afterwards  Sir  Edward — Thomson  received  his  statement 
with  suspicion,  and  candidly  told  his  visitor  that  he  could  not  believe  any  such 
report.  In  the  early  days  of  settlement  a  convict  had  been  flogged  for  having,  as 
he  himself  admitted,  tried  to  pass  off  some  brass  as  a  nugget  of  Australian  gold. 
And  on  several  subsequent  occasions  the  Government  had  nearly  been  duped  into 
giving  rewards  for  pretended  gold  discoveries.  Above  all,  the  Colonial  Secretary 
reflected  that  the  eminent  geologists,  Stryelecki  and  Clarke,  although  aware  of 
the  existence  of  auriferous  quartz  throughout  various  parts  of  the  colony,  had 
never  given  any  hints  of  genuine  gold  fields  such  as  those  of  California.  "  It  is 
very  hard  for  me  to  believe  that  a  gold  field  can  possibly  exist  in  New  South 
Wales,"  said  he.  "  Surely  these  geologists  would  have  discovered  it  before  this 
time.  And  besides  this,"  he  added,  "  you  must  remember  that  as  soon  as  Australia 
becomes  known  as  a  gold-producing  country,  it  is  utterly  spoiled  as  a  receptacle 
for  convicts."  Hargraves  assured  him  that  he  was  not  to  be  deterred  by  any 
consideration  of  that  sort.  If  the  convicts  and  gold  fields  could  not  exist 
together,  then  so  much  the  worse  for  the  convicts.  And  he  certainly  did  expect 
the  Government  to  reward  him  for  so  important  a  discovery.      He  desired  the 


Government  to  give  him,  as  soon  as  he  should  prove  the  existence  of  a  gold  field, 
the  sum  of  ;^500  as  compensation  for  his  trouble  and  outlay.  The  Colonial 
Secretary  closed  with  his  offer,  and  the  Government  geologist  was  deputed  to 
accompany  Hargraves  and  ascertain  whether  his  reports  were  true.  About  thirty 
men  followed  the  two  travellers.  The  excitement  of  the  crowd  was  intense  when 
they  reached  the  Macquarie,  and  Hargraves  showed  the  geologist  that  the  soil  was 
richly  impregnated  with  gold.  Immediately  pans  and  cradles  were  in  request, 
and  so  profitable  was  the  ground  that  within  two  weeks  about  ^10,000  worth  of 
gold  had  been  unearthed.  In  Sydney  the  news  created  the  wildest  confusion. 
Men  whose  faculties  had  lain  dormant  for  years,  now  started  into  activity.  Some 
started  for  the  gold  fields  prepared  to  work  hard  ;  others  had  no  idea  that  hard 
work  was  required.  Some  of  them  shouldered  a  shovel  to  lift  up  the  gold,  and  a 
bag  to  carry  it  home,  and  thus  equipped,  went  forward  to  make  their  fortunes. 
The  consequence  was  that  many  were  grievously  disappointed.  Hargraves  was 
appointed  Commissioner  of  Crown  Lands  at  a  salary  of  £^^0  per  annum.  The 
Parliament  ot  New  South  Wales  voted  him  the  sum  of  ^10,000,  inclusive  of  the 
^500  which  he  at  first  received.  Victoria  added  to  this  sum  ^2,500.  In  addi- 
tion he  received  testimonials  from  citizens  of  Sydney  and  Melbourne  to  the  value 
of  ^1,000.  He  was  honored  as  a  benefactor  to  his  country.  I  am  indebted  to 
Mr.  George  Sutherland,  M.  A.,  for  the  above  facts.  All  the  letters  which  passed 
between  Hargraves  and  the  Parliament  can  be  seen  in  the  museum  at  Sydney. 

In  the  same  year  in  which  gold  was  discovered  in  New  South  Wales  it  was 
discovered  in  Victoria,  the  southern  portion  of  Australia,  by  a  man  named 
Esmond.  Near  the  place  where  the  city  of  Ballarat  now  stands  has  been  found 
the  largest  amount  of  gold  ever  yet  discovered  in  the  world.  The  facts  in  relation 
to  these  gold  fields  are  exciting  in  the  extreme.  In  1862  two  men  arrived  in  the 
district,  very  poor.  Their  names  were  Deeson  and  Oates.  They  selected  a 
place  for  operation,  and  erected  a  puddling  machine,  driven  by  horse-power. 
During  the  first  two  or  three  years  they  were  rather  fortunate.  They  unearthed 
a  nugget  worth  about  .^100,  and  then  another  valued  at  ;^400.  They  were  now 
above  want,  but  then  came  four  years  of  very  bad  luck,  and  in  1869  they  found 
their  money  entirely  gone.  They  could  get  no  credit  at  the  stores,  although 
they  were  sober  and  industrious.  On  Friday,  February  5th,  Deeson  sent  to  the 
store  for  a  bag  of  flour,  promising  to  pay  for  it  in  a  few  days.  It  was  refused. 
Having  no  money,  he  found  for  the  first  time  his  family  in  actual  want  of  bread. 
After  fifteen  years  of  hard  work,  they  were  worse  off  than  on  their  arrival. 
When   they  went  to  work   that   morning   they  were  both  in  a  savage  mood,  for 


their  land  was  nearly  worked  out  ;  the  farther  they  went  upward  the  less  gold 
they  found.  Deeson  plied  his  pick  in  some  hard,  brick-like  clay  around  the  roots 
of  an  old  tree,  breaking  up  fresh  earth  and  tearing  away  the  grass  from  the 
surface  of  the  ground.  He  aimed  a  blow  at  a  clear  space  between  two  branches 
of  the  roots,  and  the  pick,  instead  of  sinking  into  the  ground,  rebounded  as  if  it 
had  hit  upon  quartz  or  granite.  "Confound  it!"  he  exclaimed,  "  I  have  broken 
my  pick."  A  minute  afterwards  he  called  out  to  Oates,  and  told  him  to  "  Come 
and  see  what  this  was."  It  was  a  mass  of  gold  cropping  several  inches  out  of 
the  ground.  As  it  was  disclosed  to  view  the  men  were  lost  in  amazement  at  its 
enormous  size.  It  was  over  a  foot  in  length,  and  nearly  the  same  in  width. 
Their  joy  was  great,  indeed.  Here,  after  years  of  toil  and  actual  want,  their 
fortune  was  found.  It  was  unsafe  to  keep  the  nugget  with  them,  and  still  more 
dangerous  to  carry  it  to  Melbourne,  a  distance  of  loo  miles.  So  they  stopped  at 
the  London  Chartered  Bank,  while  a  large  crowd  gathered  around.  Deeson 
stepped  into  the  bank,  and  having  requested  to  see  the  manager,  asked  him 
"  How  much  would  you  give  for  a  lump  of  gold  as  big  as  your  head  ?"  The 
manager  ordered  him  out,  thinking  he  was  drunk,  but  seeing  the  crowd  at  the 
door,  he  stepped  out  and  looked  into  the  cart.  Hi.s  tone  altered  immediately  and 
the  two  diggers  were  requested  to  enter.  When  the  nugget  had  been  deposited 
on  the  floor  of  the  banker's  room,  the  amount  of  pure  gold  was  2,2683^  ounces. 
The  sum  given  for  it  was  nearly  $50,000.  They  named  the  nugget  the 
"  Welcome  Stranger."  The  model,  or  cast,  is  in  the  museum,  which  I  looked  at 
with  a  great  deal  of  curiosity,  after  hearing  the  history  and  struggles  of  the  two 
men  who  found  it.     The  nugget  was  found  at  Moliagul. 

There  are  large  quantities  of  gold  being  found  at  the  present  time  at  all  the 
principal  gold  fields — Ballarat,  Sandhurst,  Eaglehawk,  Creswick,  Maiden,  Arrarat 
and  Walhalla.  Nuggets  are  sometimes  found,  varying  in  value  from  $50  to  $10,000. 
Two  new  alluvial  gold  fields  have  been  recently  discovered,  namely,  Kimberly, 
situated  in  the  northern  part  of  Western  Australia,  and  Tetulpa,  in  South  Aus- 
tralia. A  silver  mine,  said  to  be  the  richest  in  the  world,  has  been  discovered  at 
Silverton,  New  South  Wales.  The  out-put  of  silver  from  this  mine  averages 
80,000  ounces  a  week.  Rich  silver  mines  have  recently  been  discovered  in 
the  northern  part  of  Queensland. 

Diamonds  have  been  found  at  Kingara  and  the  Cudgegong  River  in  New 
South  Wales,  in  the  Ovens  district,  and  several  places  in  the  vicinity  of  Beech- 
worth,  in  Victoria,  and  in  the  beds  of  several  of  the  tributaries  of  the  Gilbert 
River,  in  Queensland.     Nine  hundred  and  twenty  diamonds  were  found  at  one 

name!  &  FeVguson  PrTrf 

Premier  Building  Association  8tDeposil'  Bank. 




mine  at  Kingara.  Rubies,  sapphires  and  garnets  are.  found  in  several  of  the  gold 
fields.  Agates  are  found  in  the  creek  beds  of  the  Gilbert  River  district  in 
Queensland.  Opals,  emeralds  and  amethysts  are  found  in  Western  Australia  in 
the  Kimberly  districts.  The  superstition  in  regard  to  opals  seems  to  be  unknown 
in  this  country.  I  have  seen  more  opals  in  one  jeweller's  window  in  Melbourne 
than  ever  before. 


^^i^^  VERYONE,  on  arriving  in  Australia  first,  has  a  curiosity  to  see  the 

^  kangaroo,  an  animal  that  is  found  in  no  other  part  of  the  world  except 
Tasmania.  I  can  remember,  when  a  child,  in  my  natural  history 
lessons,  looking  with  great  interest  at  the  picture  of  a  kangaroo,  and  all  readers 
know  that  it  is  marsupial  and  carries  its  young  in  a  bag  or  pouch,  which  is  at 
the  breast ;  and,  in  time  of  danger,  it  is  amusing  to  see  the  little  ones  spring  into 
this  pouch  and  the  mother  jump  away  with  them,  for  she  does  not  run,  but  jumps, 
on  her  hind  legs  only.  They  are  the  most  gentle-eyed  creatures  in  the  world,  and 
in  the  Zoological  Gardens,  where  many  of  them  are  kept,  they  come  up  to  be 
fed,  and  submit  to  being  stroked,  while  looking  at  you  inquiringly  with  their 
large,  soft  eyes. 

There  are  several  large  varieties  of  these  strange  animals.  The  forestei'  is 
the  largest,  standing  six  feet,  and  weighing  one  hundred  to  one  hundred  and  forty 
pounds.  The  brush  is  the  size  of  a  sheep,  and  the  wallabi  is  rather  larger  than  a 
cat.  The  curious  little  creatures,  the  kangaroo  rat  and  the  kangaroo  mouse,  are 
diminutive  animals  of  nocturnal  habits.  The  kangaroo  has  become  a  nuisance  to 
squatters,  and  hunting  parties  are  organized  to  shoot  them  ;  as  many  as  a 
thousand  have  been  shot  in  a  day.  Their  mode  of  defence  is  striking  with  the 
hind  feet,  which  are  very  powerful.  At  the  extremity  of  the  foot  there  is  a  long, 
sharp  claw,  and  woe  be  to  the  unwary  dog  that  goes  within  reach,  for,  when 
brought  to  bay,  it  strikes  a  powerful  blow. 

A  gentleman  was  telling  me,  who  had  been  on  a  hunting  expedition,  that 
shooting  the  young  ones  was  by  no  means  pleasant,  as  their  cries  resemble  that 
of  a  young  child  in  distress, — a  plaintive  cry  that,  he  said,  sounded  in  his  ears  for 
days  after.  The  skin  is  used  for  leather,  and,  when  left  with  the  hair  on,  makes 
rather  pretty  rugs. 

The  birds  are  very  numerous,  and  the  plumage  beautiful,  but  one  misses  the 
musical  notes  of  our  northern  birds.  The  emu  is  to  be  found  here.  In  size, 
form  and  habits  it  is  very  like  the  ostrich.  It  is  swift  in  flight  and  very  wild. 
The  eggs  are  large  and  of  a  deep  green  color.  There  are  a  few  ostrich  farms 
here.  Some  of  these  immense  birds  stand  six  feet  in  height.  Some  of  the 
feathered  tribe  are  remarkable  for  the  singularity  of  their  notes.  There  is  one 
called  the  coachman,  or  whip  bird,  which  has  a  note  like  the  crack  of  a  whip  ; 



another  the  bell  bird,  about  the  size  of  a  sparrow,  "  rings  out  a  peal  like  village 
chimes."  The  most  remarkable  of  all  is  the  bird  called  the  laughing  jackass, 
which  almost  startles  one  with  a  laugh  that  is  sardonic,  satanic  and  satirical. 

The  magpie,  the  most  mischievous  of  birds,  is  easily  taught  to  speak,  sing 
and  whistle.  Then  the  gorgeous  parrots,  paroquets  and  cockatoos  are  very- 
numerous.  The  bird  of  paradise  is  a  most  beautiful  bird.  Among  the  birds  of 
prey  there  is  the  vulture,  so  fierce  that  when  pressed  by  hunger  it  will  attack  the 
natives  themselves,  but  it  is  rarely  seen.  The  white  eagle  is  more  common  and 
is  about  the  size  of  a  goose.  The  cockatoos  live  to  a  great  age.  A  gentleman  in 
New  South  Wales  had  one  that  was  in  the  family  one  hundred  years.  There  is 
the  pelican,  a  very  ugly  looking  bird  ;  it  is  about  three  times  as  large  as  a  goose, 
and  has  an  imrhense  bill.  Altogether,  it  is  the  ugliest  thing  in  the  shape  of  a 
bird  I  have  ever  seen.  While  I  was  looking  at  one,  part  of  that  beautiful  poem, 
"  From  Death  to  Life,"  came  to  my  mind  : — 

"  Have  you  heard  the  tale  of  the  Pelican, 

The  Arab's  gemel-el-bahr. 
That  lives  in  the  African  solitudes 

Where  the  birds  that  live  lonely  are  ? 
Have  you  heard  how  it  loves  its  tender  young. 

And  toils  and  cares  for  their  good  ? 
It  brings  them  water  from  fountains  afar 

And  fishes  the  sea  for  their  food. 
In  famine  it  feeds  them — what  love  can  devise  ! — 
The  blood  of  its  bosom,  and  feeding  them  dies." 


Then  there  are  numbers  of  that  most  graceful  of  all  birds,  the  swan.  There 
is  the  white  and  black  swan  to  be  found  here,  and  again  these  lines  came  to  my 
mind  : — 

"  Have  you  heard  the  tale  they  tell  of  the  Swan — 
That  snow-white  bird  of  the  lake  ? 
It  noiselessly  floats  on  the  silvery  wave  ; 

It  silently  sits  in  the  brake. 
For  it  saves  its  song  till  the  end  of  life. 

Then,  in  the  soft,  still  even, 
'Mid  the  golden  light  of  the  setting  sun 

It  sings  as  it  soars  to  Heaven, 
And  the  blessed  notes  fall  back  from  the  skies  ; 
'Tis  its  only  song,  for  in  singing  it  dies." 


[j^^HERE  is  one  animal  in  Australia  that  deserves  special  mention,  although 
it  is  difficult  to  know  how  to  classify  it,  as  it  is  neither  flesh,  fish,  nor 
fowl.  Scientists  have  puzzled  their  brains  for  some  time  over  this 
strange  thing  called  the  Platypus.  When  first  discovered  it  was  sent  to  England  to 
the  naturalists  for  classification.  But  the  scientific  men  of  that  country  said 
"  the  Australians  were  playing  a  practical  joke  on  them  ;  that  they  had  sent  an 
animal  with  fur  on,  and  had  stuck  the  bill  of  a  duck  on  to  it,  and  that  it  was  not 
well  stuck  on  either.  But  they  afterwards  discovered  that  nature  had  fastened 
the  bill  on,  and  it  does  look  as  though  she  had  left  her  work  in  an  unfinished 
manner.  I  have  looked  at  the  strange  animal  with  a  great  deal  of  interest,  and 
it  is  the  only  thing  I  have  seen  that  could,  to  my  mind,  substantiate  Darwin's 
theory,  for  here  is  an  animal  that  is  certainly  undergoing  a  great  change.  What 
the  original  was  it  is  difficult  to  determine,  but  what  it  is  now — its  habits  and 
peculiarities — has  been  discovered.  It  is  part  bird,  part  animal,  and  part  fish.  It 
looks  like  a  small  beaver  that  has  borrowed  a  duck's  bill  for  masquerading  pur- 
poses. The  animal  is  small,  brown  and  velvety,  with  most  beautiful  fur,  not 
unlike  seal  skin.  The  fur  is  used  for  all  purposes  that  ordinary  fur  is  used  for. 
It  is  found  in  almost  every  river  in  Victoria,  New  South  Wales,  and  Tasmania. 
I  saw  an  article  in  one  of  the  Australian  papers  in  regard  to  the  manner  in  which 
the  platypus  suckles  its  young.     I  give  it  to  my  readers  as  it  was  written  : — 

"  The  puzzle  now  seems  to  be  to  account  for  how  the  young  platypus  man- 
ages to  suckle.  It  will  be  seen,  upon  examination,  that  the  bill  of  the  platypus 
overlaps,  that  is,  the  top  projects  some  distance  over  the  lower.  This  prevents 
it  from  being  able  to  attach  itself  to  the  breast  of  the  female  ;  and  as  there  is  no 
teat  whatever,  not  even  a  bare  spot  on  the  breast,  it  is  obvious  that  there  must  be 
some  other  means  for  the  young  to  procure  the  milk.  There  is  no  possible  difference 
in  the  fur  on  the  breast  from  that  on  the  back,  and  no  sign  of  mammary  glands  to 
be  detected  by  the  naked  eye.  However,  if  a  female  with  young  is  taken  and 
pressed  firmly  in  the  hand,  holding  the  breast  upward,  the  milk  will  exude  on 
to  the  breast  on  both  sides  between  the  front  and  back  flappers  or  fins.  The 
milk  is  exceedingly  rich,  and  will  not  run  off  the  fur.  The  mother,  to  give  her 
young  milk,  lies  on  her  back,  and,  by  pressure  of  nerves  on  the  milk  glands, 













causes  the  milk  to  exude  on  to  the  breast  fur,   whence  it  is  sucked  up  by  the 
young.     This  is  the  true  solution  proved  by  observation." 

The  eggs  of  this  strange  animal  are  about  the  size  of  pigeons'  eggs.  It  has 
been  proven  that  it  lays  eggs  and  suckles  its  young.  Truly  an  interesting  "  link" 
in  natural  history. 


^^  WILL  not  attempt  to  describe  all  the  trees,  or  flora,  of  Australia,  as  it 
/|  would  require  a  book  of  no  small  dimensions,  so  numerous  and  varied  are 
the  varieties.  There  is  the  great  family  of  the  eucalypti,  or  gum  tree.  As  a 
fever  preventative  the  qualities  of  this  tree  are  well  known.  The  native  cherry 
tree-attains  a  height  of  about  twenty  feet.  The  peculiarity  of  the  fruit  formation 
is  that  the  stone  grows  on  the  outside  of  the  cherry.  The  tree  fern,  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  specimens  of  the  vegetable  world,  is  found  in  all  its  luxuriance  in 
the  upper  part  of  -the  river  valleys  in  the  coast  districts,  and  in  the  gorges  and 
ravines  of  the  mountain  regions.  I  wish  I  had  space  to  describe  to  my  readers 
the  beauty  and  varieties  of  the  ferns  to  be  seen  in  Australia.  From  the  delicate 
maiden-hair  to  the  tall  sturdy  fern  tree,  there  is  a  gradation  that  furnishes  study 
for  the  botanist  and  pleasure  for  the  lover  of  the  beautiful.  There  are  fern 
trees  which  grow  to  the  height  of  ten  and  some  twenty  feet.  Imagine  a  fern 
tree  with  its  waving  fern  fronds  overhead,  while  at  your  feet  creep  the  green, 
feathery,  delicate  sprays  of  maiden-hair. 

The  gigantic  nettle  is  one  of  the  singular  trees  indigenous  to  Australia.  It 
is  found  in  the  scrub  jungles  of  the  coast  district,  where  it  reaches  a  height 
frequently  of  lOO  feet.  The  leaves  are  large,  and  on  the  under  part  there  is  a 
poisonous  fluid.  The  sting  from  this  fluid  is  very  severe,  and  horses  and  cattle 
have  been  known  to  die  after  coming  in  contact  with  it.  The  acacia  is  well 
represented.  Over  a  hundred  species  have  been  discovered.  The  Australian 
oak,  of  which  there  are  various  species,  is  to  be  found  in  different  parts  of  the 
continent.  There  is  a  variety  of  palms.  The  cabbage  palm  attains  a  height  of 
1 20  feet.  The  young  embryo  leaves  are  soft  and  very  pleasant  to  the  taste. 
They  are  cut  out  of  the  young  trees  and  used  as  food  by  the  aborigines.  When 
roasted  it  is  quite  palatable. 

Among  the  most  beautiful  flowers  to  be  found  in  Australia  is  the  orchid,  of 
which  there  are  many  varieties.  The  magnolia  trees  are  extremely  beautiful. 
The  exquisite  lily  tree,  which  grows  to  a  height  of  twelve  feet,  with  its  wax-like 
flowers,  is  almost  perfect  in  its  delicate  coloring.  But,  notwithstanding  the 
beautiful  trees  and  flowers  which  are  to  be  found  in  Australia,  the  landscape 
effect  is  monotonous.  I  miss  the  running  brooks  and  mossy  banks  of  my  own 
country,  the  autumn  tints  of  our  Canadian  forest,  for  here  in  Australia  the  grass 



is  brown  and  scorched  with  heat,  and  in  many  instances  there  are  miles  and  miles 
of  sand,  and  one  can  imagine  one's  self  in  an  Arabian  desert.  Farther  on  can 
be  seen  the  seared  grass  and  eucalyptus  trees,  with  their  gnarled  and  twisted 
branches,  that  look  as  if  nature  had  made  an  effort  to  see  into  what  strange,  con- 
torted shapes  she  could  form  a  tree.  These  trees  always  make  a  strange  impres- 
sion on  my  mind — as  though  I  was  looking  at  a  human  being,  deformed,  writhing 
in  pain,  with  long  arms,  twisted  and  contorted  in  agony. 

The  long  periods  of  dry  weather  constitute  the  most  dreaded  feature  of 
Australian  life.  In  some  parts  of  the  country  three  years  have  been  known  to 
pass  and  no  rainfall.  Sheep  die  by  hundreds,  and  the  squatters  are  ruined 
financially.  Then  again  the  rain  falls  in  torrents,  sweeping  everything  before  it, 
bridges  and  houses,  and  frequent  loss  of  life  has  occurred  from  these  freshets. 
The  most  oppressive  feature  in  connection  with  Australian  life  is  the  hot  wind. 
It  is  not  unlike  the  sirocco  which  visits  Italy  and  other  countries  in  the  south  of 
Europe.  It  is  difficult  to  write  about  the  temperature,  for  I  think  it  the  most 
capricious  temperature  in  the  world.  The  changes  through  which  one  passes 
sometimes  in  a  day  are  astonishing — rain,  heat  and  cold.  In  January  of  this  year 
— 1887 — in  Melbourne,  the  thermometer  stood  thus  :  Thursday,  97°  in  the  shade  ; 
Friday,  98° ;  Saturday,  99°  ;  Sunday,  104°  in  the  shade  and  153°  in  the  sun.  At 
Rockhampton,  Queensland,  it  was  125°  in  the  shade.  Water  boils  at  212°,  but  I 
think  blood  boils  at  104°,  as  I  am  certain  that  mine  did  that  terrible  Sunday. 


OME  of  the  natives  or  aborigines  of  Australia  possess  a  faculty  or  art 
— one  scarcely  knows  how  to  name  it — which  is  truly  wonderful.  They 
might  well  be  called  human  blood-hounds,  for  if  put  on  the  track  of  a  crim- 
inal, they  hunt  him  down  with  an  instinct  that  is  marvelous — over  sandy  hard 
roads  where  a  white  man  fails  to  discern  the  faintest  trace  of  footsteps,  through 
tangled  forests,  across  streams  until  the  fugitive,  criminal  or  thief  is  found.  It 
is  necessary  to  keep  them  isolated,  or,  at  least,  in  their  savage  state,  for  by  con- 
tact or  association  with  Europeans  they  lose  this  strange  faculty.  The  Govern- 
ment is  just  awakening  to  the  advantage  of  this  strange  gift,  and  many  of  the 
natives  are  employed  for  the  purpose  of  tracking  criminals. 

Just  a  few  days  ago  a  man  in  this  colony — Victoria — was  riding  on  horse- 
back and  was  stunned  in  some  way,  falling  from  his  horse,  where  he  lay  for  some 
time.  Partially  recovering,  he  wandered  into  the  bush  in  a  semi-conscious  state 
and  was  lost.  Here  let  me  tell  my  readers  that  there  is  no  place  in  the  world 
where  one  can  get  so  inextricably  tangled  as  in  an  Australian  bush.  The  friends 
of  the  missing  man  started  in  search,  many  people  assisting  who  were  familiar 
with  the  bush,  but  they  could  find  no  trace  of  him.  They  were  about  to  give  the 
man  up  for  lost,  when  as  a  last  resort  they  put  the  "  black-trackers" — as  they  are 
called — out,  and  in  a  short  time  they  discovered  him. 

A  few  years  ago  a  banker  went  to  the  gold  diggings  to  buy  gold  from  the 
miners.  After  purchasing  he  started  homewards,  but  was  murdered  by  the  way- 
side. His  horse  and  carriage  were  found,  the  vehicle  showing  signs  of  a  struggle, 
as  it  was  bespattered  with  blood.  Putting  the  "  black-trackers  "  on  the  road, 
they  showed  them  the  track  of  the  carriage  wheels,  and  following  up  the  trail 
with  unerring  instinct,  they  came  to  a  shanty  occupied  by  two  men,  about  twenty 
miles  from  the  scene  of  the  struggle.  The  men,  were  arrested  on  suspicion,  but 
none  of  the  gold  could  be  discovered.  The  house  was  searched  and  at  length 
pulled  down,  but  still  no  trace  of  the  gold.  The  "  black-trackers"  were  observed 
to  go  round  and  round  an  old  stable,  that  was  built  by  putting  four  posts  in  the 
ground.  They  stopped  before  one  of  the  supports,  pointed  downwards,  and  upon 
lifting  the  post  the  gold  was  found  underneath. 

The  two  men  were  convicted  and  hanged  for  the  murder.  I  could  mention 
hundreds  of  instances  of  their  skill,  which  seems  almost  supernatural.  Perhaps 
they  possess  the  long-talked-of  and  much-discussed  sixth  sense. 




It  seems  almost  incredible,  while  looking  around  on  this  fair  land,  that  it 
was  at  one  time  the  refuge  of  the  convict,  the  home  of  England's  worst  criminals, 
the  scene  of  horrors  which  make  the  flesh  creep  to  mention,  where  the 
sound  of  the  lash  was  daily  heard  as  it  descended  on  the  bare  back  and 
shoulders  of  the  prisoners,  many  of  whom  died  from  the  terrible  treatment  they 

For  many  years  New  South  Wales  was  a  settlement  for  criminals.  The 
beautiful  city  of  Sydney  was  at  one  time  only  a  criminal  dep6t.  New  South 
Wales,  Van  Dieman's  Land  and  Norfolk  Island  were  the  penal  settlements. 
After  being  sent  from  England,  on  their  arrival  in  New  South  Wales,  for  fresh 
misdemeanors  and  crimes  committed  there,  the  worst  of  the  prisoners,  the  most 
lawless  and  ungovernable,  were  transferred  to  Norfolk  Island.  It  was  the  convict's 
hell;  once  there  hope  left  them.  The  very  name  was  a  terrcw  to  them.  The  prisoners 
were  treated  as  brutes,  not  as  human  beings  ;  the  worst  part  of  their  nature  was 
aroused,  and  after  a  length  of  time  they  degenerated  into  mere  animals.  The 
usual  mode  of  punishment  was  to  place  the  prisoner  on  a  triangle  with  the  feet 
fastened  with  thongs  at  the  base  of  the  triangle,  the  arms  extended  and  the  bare 
back  turned  toward  the  man  who  held  the  "  cat,"  and  the  refinement  of  cruelty 
was  reached  when  the  warder  compelled  one  prisoner  to  flog  another.  Hundreds 
of  instances  occurred  where  prisoners  died  from  the  effect  of  the  flogging,  died 
like  dogs  bruised  and  beaten  to  death.  I-  leave  it  for  my  readers  to  decide  which 
was  the  most  culpable,  the  transported  criminal  or  the  brute  who  flogged  them 
to  death.  The  convicts  were,  many  of  them,  undoubtedly  of  the  worst  type, 
but  did  ill-usage  ever,  from  the  beginning  of  the  world,  tend  to  improve,  soften, 
or  reclaim  a  human  being?  In  many  instances  little  boys  were  sent  out  from 
England  for  some  slight  offence,  sent  to  herd  with  the  hardened  criminal,  to 
listen  to  the  groans  and  curses  in  the  "  Kingdom  of  Hell."  They  too  were 
beaten  and  flogged  until  life  became  unbearable,  and  many  times  their  bodies 
were  found  where  they  had  thrown  themselves  over  the  cliff  to  escape  the  lash. 
Here  is  an  extract  from   "  His  Natural  Life,"  by  Marcus  Clarke  : — 

Sylvia  was  resting  on  a  bench  that,  placed  at  the  summit  of  a  cliff,  over- 
looked the  sea.  'While  resting  there  she  became  aware  of  another  presence,  and, 
turning  her  head,  beheld  a  small  boy  with  his  cap  in  one  hand  and  a  hammer  in 
the  other.  The  appearance  of  the  little  creature,  clad  in  a  uniform  of  grey  cloth 
that  was  too  large  for  him,  and  holding  in  his  withered  little  hand  a  hammer  that 
was  too  heavy  for  him,  had  something  pathetic  about  it. 


"  What  is  it,  you  mite  ?"  she  asked. 

"  Me  thought  you  might  have  seen  him,  mum,"  said  the  little  figure,  opening 
its  blue  eyes  with  wonder  at  the  kindness  of  the  tone, 

"Him!    Whom?" 

"Cranky  Brown,  him  as  did  it  this  morning.  Me  and  Billy  knowed  him; 
he  was  a  mate  of  ours,  and  we  wanted  to  know  if  he  looked  happy." 

"  What  do  you  mean,  child  .-*"  said  she,  with  a  strange  terror  at  her  heart  ; 
and  then  filled  with  pity  at  the  aspect  of  the  little  being,  she  drew  him  to  her 
with  sudden  womanly  instinct  and  kissed  him. 

"  Oh  !  "  he  said. 

Sylvia  kissed  him  again. 

"  Does  nobody  ever  kiss  you,  poor  little  man  ?"  said  she. 

"  Mother  used  to,  but  she's  at  home.  Oh,  mum,"  with  a  sudden  crimsoning 
of  the  little  face,   "may  I  fetch  Billy  ?" 

And  taking  courage,  he  gravely  marched  to  an  angle  of  the  rock  and  brought 
out  another  little  creature,  with  another  grey  uniform  and  another  hammer. 

"  This  is  Billy,  mum,"  he  said.     "  Billy  never  had  no  mother.      Kiss  Billy." 

She  felt  the  tears  rush  to  her  eyes.  "You  two  poor  babies  !  "  she  said. 
And  then  forgetting  that  she  was  a  lady,  dressed  in  silks  and  laces,  she  fell  on 
her  knees  in  the  dust,  and  folding  the  friendless  pair  in  her  arms,  wept  over  them. 

When  Sylvia  went  away  Tommy  and  Billy  put  into  execution  a  plan  which 
they  had  carried  in  their  poor  little  heads  for  many  weeks. 

"  I  can  do  it  now,"   said  Tommy.     "  I  feel  strong." 

"Will  it  hurt  much,  Tommy  ?  " 

"  Not  so  much  as  a  whipping." 

"  I'm  afraid  !     Oh,  Tom,  it's  so  deep  !     Don't  leave  me,  Tom  !  " 

The  bigger  boy  took  his  little  handkerchief  from  his  neck  and  with  it  bound 
his  own  left  hand  to  Billy's  right. 

"  Now  I  can'/  leave  you." 

"What  was  it  the  lady  that  kissed  us  said.  Tommy  ?" 

"  Lord,  have  pity  on  these  two  fatherless  children,"  replied  Tommy. 

"  Let's  say  it,  Tom." 

And  so  the  two  babies  knelt  on  the  brink  of  the  cliff,  and  raising  their  bound 
hands  together,  looked  up  at  the  sky  and  said,  "  Lord,  have  pity  on  we  two 
fatherless  children!"     And  then  they  kissed  each  other,  and  "did  it." 

AROUND  THE   WORLD.  _  47 

There  is  a  great  variety  of  snakes  in  Australia,  many  of  them  poisonous. 
The  most  to  be  dreaded  is  the  death  adder.  The  name  is  suggestive,  for  the 
bite  is  always  fatal.  It  is  not  more  than  two  and  a  half  feet  in  length,  thick, 
and  does  not  taper  gradually  towards  the  tail  like  other  snakes.  It  is  a  dusky 
brown  with  grey  spots,  and  looks  like  a  dried  branch.  Will  stretch  itself  motion- 
less on  the  ground,  and  never  turns  aside  to  avoid  a  person,  but  is  never  the 
assailant,  and  will  not  bite  unless  trodden  upon,  or  in  self-defence.  But  people 
are  frequently  bitten,  as  it  lies  so  still,  and  looks  so  much  like  a  dried  branch,  that 
people  step  upon  it,  and  discover  too  late  that  they  have  been  bitten  by  the 
dreaded  death  adder.  The  unfortunate  one  does  not  try  remedies,  as  in  ordinary 
snake  bites,  as  it  has  been  proven  useless.  The  only  thing  is  to  wait  for  death, 
which  occurs  generally  within  thirty  minutes  after  being  bitten. 

The  black  snake  is  poisonous  and  about  four  or  five  feet  in  length.  This 
one  will  not  wait  to  be  trodden  upon,  like  the  death  adder,  before  it  attacks,  but 
frequently  makes  the  attack.  Fortunately  .its  bite  is  not  so  fatal  as  that  of 
the  death  adder. 

The  whip  snake,  long  and  slender,  of  greenish  tint,  is  poisonous,  but  its  bite 
seldom  fatal.  There  are  many  varieties  of  water  snakes,  all  exceedingly  venomous, 
and  some  very  large,  with  tails  flat. 

The  green  snake  is  venomous,  but  not  dreaded. 

The  tiger  snake  is  one  to  be  dreaded,  as  its  bite  is  very  poisonous. 

The  diamond  snake  destroys  by  strangulation,  bite  harmless,  length  from 
eight  to  eighteen  feet. 

There  are  more  poisonous  snakes  in  Australia  than  any  place  in  the  world 
except  India,  but  fortunately  there  are  few  people  bitten,  unlike  India,  where 
statistics  show  more  deaths  from  snake  bites  than  from  any  other  casualties.  I 
have  seen  a  very  good  picture  painted  by  a  young  Australian  artist,  called  "  An 
Unwelcome  Visitor."  It  is  a  bush  scene,  in  which  a  man  has  been  disturbed  by 
the  sight  of  a  tiger  snake  just  near  him.  The  horror  on  the  man's  face  is  clearly 
depicted,  while  the  unwelcome  visitor  is  admirably  executed. 


ELBOURNE,  th*e  capital  of  Victoria,  has  a  population  of  371,000, 
but  the  large  suburbs  take  the  resident  population  from  the  centre, 
and  the  "  correct  "  thing  is  to  reside  in  either  Toorak  or  St.  Kilda, 
both  fashionable  suburbs.  Trains  run  into  the  city  from  St.  Kilda  every  ten 
minutes.  It  is  difficult  to  imagine  Melbourne  a  "new"  city,  yet  it  is  barely  fifty 
years  old.  It  seems  incredible  that  such  a  city  could  be  built  in  so  short  a  space 
of  time.  Even,  to  Americans,  who  are  accustomed  to  the  "  newness  "  of  every- 
thing, Melbourne  cannot  fail  to  cause  astonishment.  But  let  my  readers  banish 
all  thought  of  comparing  it  to  the  so-called  "  cities  "  of  western  America.  There 
are  no  cheap,  wooden  buildings  that  look  as  though  a  wind  would  carry  them 
away,  but  everything  is  solid  and  substantial,  and  looks  more  like  Chicago  than 
any  place  I  can  compare  it  to.  The  streets  are  block  paved,  and  there  is  an 
excellent  system  of  cable  cars  ;  the  pavements  are  flag  stoned  ;  the  principal 
streets  ninety-nine  feet  in  width.  I  will  mention  here,  en  passant,  that  owing  to 
the  climate,  the  buildings  are  toned  down  and  have  an  appearance  of  age. 
Government  House,  architecturally,  is  not  a  thing  of  beauty,  but  it  is  large,  and 
the  grounds  are  magnificent.  It  is  occupied  at  the  present  time  by  Sir  Henry 
B.  Loch. 

There  is  a  beautiful  aquarium  in  the  grounds  of  the  Exhibition  building, 
where  lovers  of  the  "finny"  tribe  can  see  strange  and  beautiful  specimens  of 
exquisitely  tinted  little  creatures  of  the  ocean  world.  The  new  Houses  of  Parlia- 
ment, now  in  process  of  erection,  will  be  very  imposing. 

There  is  a  splendid  University,  handsome  churches,  coffee  palaces  and  fine 
hotels  ;  and  in  speaking  of  hotels,  there  is  one  thing  that  I  think  everyone  born 
in  America  will  agree  with  me  in,  that  is  the  objection  to  the  system  of  employing 
bar-maids  in  all  hotels  and  saloons.  It  is  useless  trying  to  get  accustomed  to  it. 
A  woman  looks  strangely  out  of  place  behind  a  bar,  selling  liquor  to  men.  No 
matter  who  the  woman  may  be,  ever  so  low,  ever  so  degraded,  there  is  generally 
a  trace  of  womanly  grace  or  feminine  softness  about  her,  but  this  practice  seems 
to  me  to  rob  her  of  every  trace  of  gentleness  and  grace.  In  nearly  all  hotels 
they  are  employed  ;  many  of  them  are  very  pretty,  and  if  they  were  in  America 
a  number  of  avenues  would  be  open  for  them  to  gain  a  livelihood,  but  here  in 
Australia  fewer  ways  are  open  to  women.    There   is   the  domestic   servant,  the 







sewing  girl  and  the  bar-maid.    The  position  of  the  bar- maid  is  pecuniarily  a  better 
one  than  that  of  servant  or  sewing  girl. 

There  are  a  number  of  beautiful  theatres  in  Melbourne,  the  most  charming 
one  being  the  "  Princess."  It  is  the  most  beautiful  bijou  theatre  in  the  world. 
New  York  or  London  have  nothing  to  compare  with  it.  Only  in  Paris  can 
anything  so  beautiful  be  found  in  the  way  of  a  theatre. 

Australians  are  great  lovers  of  the  play,  and  Melbourne  is  the  greatest 
theatre-going  place  in  the  world  for  its  population,  and  they  are  passionate  lovers 
of  music.  An  Italian  opera  company  is  here  now — brought  out  from  Italy — ■ 
which  gives  the  finest  compositions  of  the  best  composers,  and  the  house  is  filled 

The  Botanical  Gardens  are  marvels  of  beauty.  There,  where  everything 
grows  with  tropical  luxuriance,  the  small  bushes  become  trees,  and  it  looks  strange 
to  northern  eyes  to  see  plants  on  which  so  much  time  and  care  are  spent  in 
Canada,  growing  into  tall  trees.  The  oleander  grows  to  the  height  of  fifteen 
feet.  A  rose  bush  is  a  rose  bush  no  longer  ;  in  this  country  it  becomes  a  tree. 
And  then  the  most  beautiful  of  all,  to  which  I  cannot  help  referring  again,  is  the 
fern  tree. 

There  are  several  handsome  streets  in  Melbourne — Elizabeth,  Flinders, 
Swanston,  Bourke  and  Collins,  the  two  latter  being  the  principal  thoroughfares. 
Collins  is  the  fashionable  street,  where  the  beauty  and  wealth  congregate  in 
the  afternoons  to  "do  the  block."  The  ladies  of  Melbourne  dress  well  and 
handsomely,  much  more  expensively  than  the  ladies  of  Canada,  and  in  better 
taste  than  those  of  America.  They  evidently  have  an  artistic  eye  for  harmony, 
for  here  you  do  not  see  women  looking  as  though  they  had  purchased  their 
clothes  from  a  second-hand  clothing  store.  That  is,  they  do  not  wear  a  dress  of 
one  color,  a  hat  of  another,  gloves  of  a  different  shade,  and  so  on,  but  if  they  dress 
in  white  they  are  sensible  of  the  harmony  of  color,  and  dress  in  all  white  ;  if  in 
black,  all  black  ;  if  in  grey,  gloves,  hat,  parasol,  ribbons,  are  all  grey.  Like 
Parisienne  women,  they  are  particular  that  everything  shall  match.  Even  though 
they  may  wear  an  outre  color,  it  will  not  offend  the  eye,  because  it  will  all  har- 
monize. But  they  lack  the  individuality  of  dress  which  characterizes  the  American 
women.  In  America  women  have  come  to  understand  that  the  same  fashion  can 
not  be  adopted  by  the  tall,  the  stout,  the  fair  and  the  dark.  But  in  Melbourne, 
although  taste  in  color  is  allowed  to  have  scope,  the  manner  in  which  the  garment 
is  made  will  not  change.  If  it  is  fashionable  to  have  a  skirt  or  costume  elaborately 
trimmed,  everyone  follows  that  rule.     The  aesthetic  maiden  and  the  portly  dame 


all  appear  in  garments  made  precisely  the  same.  The  cook,  the  bar-maid,  the 
serving  girl,  the  lady  of  leisure,  all  the  same  cut  of  garments.  But  they  have  the 
advantage  of  Canadians  in  the  idea  of  harmony,  that  is,  their  gloves,  dress, 
hat,  etc.,  are  one  color.  A  theatre  or  opera  house  in  the  evening  in  Melbourne 
is  a  very  pretty  sight,  as  the  ladies  all,  or  nearly  all,  appear  in  evening  dress.  It 
is  a  rare  thing  here  to  see  a  lady  at  a  theatre  except  in  evening  dress.  Many 
Canadians  have  adopted  the  custom  of  Americans,  in  going  to  a  theatre  with  hats 
or  bonnets  on,  oftentimes  making  it  impossible  to  see  the  stage.  Here  such  a 
thing  would  not  be  allowed.  There  is  a  cloak  room  for  hats,  cloaks  and  bonnets. 
The  theatres  are  not  bui't  like  American  theatres.  In  Australia  the  orchestra 
chairs  are  the  .  stalls,  and  are  the  second  best  seats  in  the  house.  The  first 
seats  are  in  the  parquette,  which  is  raised  much  higher  than  in  America. 
There  is  a  different  entrance  to  each.  People  who  do  not  dress  and  wish  low 
priced  seats,  take  the  stalls,  but  I  have  not  seen  any  lady  in  the  parquette  except 
in  evening  dress,  since  my  arrival  in  Australia,  and  it  is  a  much  prettier  sight 
than  the  street  dress  worn  by  many  Canadians  and  nearly  all  Americans. 

The  Zoological  Gardens  are  well  worth  visiting,  and  many  strange  animals 
are  to  be  seen  there  :  animals  from  India,  Japan,  America  and  Africa,  tropical 
birds  and  poisonous  snakes,  and,  much  to  my  amusement,  a  Canadian  goose  has 
been  given  a  large  plot  of  ground,  is  labelled,  and  looked  upon  as  one  of  the 
curiosities.  A  goose  is  nothing  in  his  own  country,  but  remove  him  from  his 
plebeian  surroundings,  take  him  to  a  strange  country,  put  him  in  a  zoological 
garden,  labelled,  and  he  really  assumes  a  dignity  hitherto  undreamed  of 

I  visited  the  museum  in  connection  with  the  University  of  Melbourne,  and 
found  there  a  world  of  wonders.  Three  or  four  days  could  be  profitably  and 
pleasantly  spent  among  the  dry  bones  of  this  animal  world  of  curiosities.  The 
first  thing  which  attracts  the  attention  outside  the  museum  is  the  skeleton  of  a 
whale,  ninety  feet  in  length,  which  was  caught  a  short  distance  from  Melbourne, 
at  Port  Philip.  The  huge  monster  became  stranded  on  the  beach  and  could  not 
get  off,  and  the  result  was  that  its  bones  are  now  one  of  the  curiosities  of  the 
museum.  Probably  most  of  my  readers  have  read  of  the  Moa,  the  wonderful 
bird  which  at  one  time  belonged  to  New  Zealand,  but  is  now  extinct.  It  has 
been  extinct  for  many  years,  for  even  the  Maoris  had  never  seen  it.  When  New 
Zealand  emerged  from  the  ocean,  the  moa  came  with  it.  Some  writer  has  said 
that  "  it  was  a  bird  that  required  a  country  by  itself,"  and  retired  when  smaller 
animals  appeared.  Think  of  a  bird  fifteen  feet  in  height!  The  large  ostrich  is 
but  a  pigmy  in  comparison.      It   is   wingless  and  tailless,    with   immense  strong, 

AROUND  THE   WORLD.  "  51 

heavy  feet,  and  powerful  legs.  "Its  bony  skeleton  is  the  best  lecturer  upon 
natural  history — ^more  impressive  than  all  lecturers  that  ever  opened  mouth  and 
labored  away  for  hours  to  tell  us  what  these  dry  bones  say  in  their  grand  silent 
language."  While  looking  at  the  huge  skeleton  the  words  came  into  my  mind, 
"  For  there  were  giants  in  those  days."  The  giants  have  passed  away,  belonged 
to  another  age  ;  the  mastodon,  the  moa,  have  had  their  day,  have  served  their 
purpose  ;  nothing  remains  to  tell  the  story  but  the  dry  bones  and  eyeless 

During  my  stay  in  Melbourne,  the  greatest  land  "boom"  that  has  ever  risen 
in  any  country,  has  risen  here — a  veritable  South  Sea  Bubble.  Land  has  sold 
for  fabulous  prices.  On  Collins  Street  several  large  blocks  sold  for  $10,000  a 
foot.  One  block,  which  cost  $250  fifty  years  previous,  was  disposed  of  for 
$2,500,000.  At  a  distance  of  three  and  four  miles  from  the  heart  of  the  city 
land  is  selling  at  from  $1,000  to  $3,000  a  foot. 

M.  Comellant,  one  of  the  Commissioners  sent  out  from  Paris  to  the  Exhibi- 
tion at  Melbourne,  was  dining  at  the  French  Club.  His  health  was  proposed, 
and,  in  returning  thanks,  he  dwelt  upon  the  pleasure  he  had  received  from  his 
visit  to  Melbourne  and  upon  the  apprehensions  indulged  in  by  his  family  when 
he  set  out  upon  what  appears  to  be  such  a  formidable  journey  to  most  Parisians. 
One  excellent  lady  of  his  acquaintance  remonstrated  with  him  on  the  impropriety 
of  going  so  far  from  home  at  his  time  of  life,  as  he  might  possibly  lay  his  bones  in 
an  Australian  grave.  "  But,"  said  the  speaker,  "  I  have  since  assuaged  her 
anxiety  in  that  point,  for  1  have  apprised  her  by  letter  that  land  is  so  awfully  dear 
in  Melbourne,  that  I  could  not  afford  to  buy  even  so  small  an  allotment  as  a 
grave,  and  therefore  I  must  return  to  France  to  die  on  the  mere  ground  of 

Some  colossal  fortunes  have  been  made,  notably  by  Sir  W.  J.  Clarke, 
Baronet,  Sir  James  McBain,  Mr.  G.  W.  Taylor,  Hon.  M.  H.  Davies,  Hon.  C. 
H.  James,  to  all  of  whom  I  am  indebted  for  kindness  shown  me. 


^jIj^'^HE  beautiful  Flemington  race-course  is  the  scene  of  many  an  exciting 
Y'I  y  race,  and  the  great  gala  day  is  when  the  Melbourne  Cup  is  being  con- 
-'^  tested.  On  that  day  all  the  wealth,  fashion  and  beauty  congregate  at 
the  famous  race-course.  The  grand  stand,  which  accommodates  10,000  people,  is 
filled  with  handsomely  dressed  ladies.  Cloak  rooms,  retiring  rooms,  etc.,  are 
nicely  fitted  up  for  the  accommodation  of  the  people.  At  the  last  "  Cup  "  race 
there  were  about  150,000  persons  present,  and  more  than  $1,000,000  changed 
hands  at  the  course.  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  one  of  the  most  exciting  races 
that  had  ever  been  run,  when  the  beautiful  little  horse  "  Trident "  won  the  Aus- 
tralian Cup  by  about  half  a  head,  from  his  rival,  "  Nelson,"  both  horses  being 
valued  at  nearly  their  weight  in  gold.  At  that  race  the  owner  ol  "  Trident  "  won 
$30,000  in  about  /our  minutes.  After  the  race  was  over  I  went  down  to  the 
paddock,  and  it  was  a  pleasure  to  see  the  slim-limbed,  thorough-bred  creature, 
with  nostrils  red  and  quivering,  and  I  thought  of  Kit  Carson's  ride  and  the 
magnificent  'Pache.  Even  the  most  phlegmatic  individual  can  not  suppress  an 
exclamation  and  shout  of  enthusiasm  during  a  race  at  the  Flemington  course. 
The  steeple-chase  is  the  most  exciting,  for  the  jockeys  often  get  terrible  tumbles. 
In  the  short  space  of  four  months  six  riders  have  been  killed.  In  England, 
during  the  steeple-race,  the  horses  are  not  run  full  speed,  but  "  take"  the  hurdles 
quietly  ;  while  in  Australia  the  horse  is  not  slowed  down  before  taking  the  leap, 
but  jumps  while  going  at  full  speed.  One  can  imagine  that  the  rider's  chance  of 
escape  is  very  small  if  a  horse  falls,  which  it  frequently  does.  It  is  a  sickening 
sensation  to  see  horse  and  rider  go  down,  at  the  rate  of  speed  in  which  they  run. 
One  hears  the  exclamation  of  horror,  and  the  question,  "  Is  he  killed .''  Is  he 
killed  ?  "  and  sees  the  involuntary  shudder  running  through  the  whole  assemblage. 
The  jockeys  in  Australia  are  not  a  "  bad  lot  "  by  any  means  ;  they,  too,  are  a  class 
by  themselves,  and  give  to  the  Australians  a  great  deal  of  pleasure  and  excite- 
ment. The  "  bookies  "  are  another  distinct  class,  and  any  dishonesty  on  their 
part  disqualifies  them  for  life  ;  any  failing  to  pay  their  betting  debts  their  license 
is  taken  from  them.  The  laws  and  rules  of  the  turf  are  very  stringent.  At  the 
present  time  Lord  Deerhurst — the  Governor's  Aide — is  having  some  difficulty 
with  one  of  the  "  bookies,"  the  noble  lord  having  refused  to  pay  a  betting  debt. 
At  the  last  race  which   I  attended  among  those  present  were  Sir  H.  B.  Loch, 










Lady  Loch,  Lord  Carrington,  Lord  Deerhurst  and  Lord  Sandhurst,  allowing  the 
tuft-hunters  and  "  toadies " — which,  like  other  vermin,  are  to  be  found  in  all 
countries — an  opportunity  to  "grovel." 

En  passant,  I  will  say  that  the  dresses  which  are  worn  at  the  "  Cup  "  are 
put  on  exhibition  in  the  window  of  a  fashionable  draper  a  week  or  two  previous 
to  the  race. 

A  number  of  women  were  sitting  near  me  at  the  race,  and  I  was  much 
amused  at  the  comments  they  made,  and  their  criticisms  of  costumes  worn  by 

other  women.      "  There  is  Mrs. .     She  always  wears  that  dress  to  the  races. 

I  have  seen  her  here  twice  with  that  same  dress.     There  is   Miss .     She 

don't  look  well  at  all — falling  off  wonderfully.  There  is  a  dress  ;  see,  it  is  per- 
fectly horrible  ;  and  there  is  Mrs.  with  a  dress  which  looks  just  like  one   I 

had  made  in  Paris.  But  there  is  Lady ;  she  looks  well ;  so  refined  ;  so  lady- 
like ;  always  looks  well  in  anything."  I  pondered  long  over  this  latter-part  of 
the  conversation,  and  wondered  much  whether  that  same  garment  put  upon  plain 

Mrs.,  instead   of  Lady  ,    would   have  looked   so  well  in  the  eyes  of  these 


There  is  a  beautiful  promenade  in  front  of  the  grand  stand,  and  after  each 
race,  while  the  "books"  are  being  made,  the  ladies  take  the  opportunity  of 
showing  their  handsome  toilettes.  At  the  race  in  which  "  Trident "  won,  the 
distance  was  two  and  a  quarter  miles  in  four  minutes  and  tour  seconds.  All  the 
races  here  are  run  on  the  "  turf,"  or  greensward,  the  horses  all  being  without 
shoes  while  running. 

If  the  literature  of  a  country  is  an  index  to  the  character  of  its  people,  then 
Australia  must  have  a  population  of  warm-hearted,  frank  and  generous  persons. 
Although  the  country  is  young,  it  has  produced  more  writers  than  Canada.  One 
writer's  memory — that  of  Marcus -Clarke — is  fresh  in  the  minds  of  Australians, 
and  all  feel  a  pride  in  his  writings.  He  died  poor — as  most  literary  people  do — 
about  five  years  since.  His  widow  is  living  in  Melbourne,  and  a  charming  woman 
she  is.  After  his  death  the  Government  gave  her  a  position,  which  affords  her 
and  her  seven  children  a  modest  competence.  The  work  which  gave  him  his 
reputation — "  His  Natural  Life  " — is  a  story  of  the  early  convict  days  in  the 
colony,  a  book  which  no  one  can  read  unmoved.  It  is  said  that  the  characters 
were  all  taken  from  life,  and  by  many  people  it  is  ranked  with  Dickens'  best 
efforts.  For  pathos  it  is  unequalled,  and  reminds  me  forcibly  of  "  Les  Miserables," 
Victor  Hugo's  best  work.  The  book  sells  well  in  England,  and  I  think  every 
Australasian  has  read  "  For  the  Term  of  His  Natural  Life." 


The  writer's  own  life  would  be  well  worth  writing,  one  in  which  tragedy  and 
comedy  were  strangely  combined.  Always  poor,  many  times  arrested  for  debt, 
writing  at  his  story  late  into  the  night,  addicted  to  drinking,  making  friends  easily, 
he  produced  one  of  the  saddest  of  all  sad  books. 

B.  L.  Farjeon  is  an  Australian.  Many  people  have  mistaken  him  for  an 
Englishman,  but  he  is  an  Australian,  born  and  bred.  Several  of  his  best  stories 
were  written  here,  but,  strange  to  say,  they  were  not  appreciated,  so  he  went  to 
London,  where  his  reputation  was  at  once  established,  and  where  he  is  at  present. 
Nearly  everyone  has  read  his  "  Blade  o'  Grass,"  "  Little  Griff,"  and  his  London 
story,  "Great  Porter  House  Square." 

J.  Kingston,  whose  letters  appeared  in  the  Arg^us,  has  written  a  most  inter- 
esting book  called  "  The  Australian  Abroad."  It  is  a  book  of  travel,  and  unlike 
many  works  of  travels,  is  not  dull.  The  writer  gives  an  interesting  sketch  of 
Egypt,  India,  the  Holy  Land,  Java,  New  Zealand,  and  other  countries.  He  is 
at  present  travelling,  and  will  no  doubt  write  another  soon. 

Mr.  Julian  Thomas,  who  writes  under  the  nom  de  plume  of  "The  Vaga- 
bond," to  whom  I  have  referred  in  an  early  part  of  my  book,  should  be  read  by 
all  lovers  of  strange  truths. 

John  Lang  has  written  some  clever  books  of  early  colonial  days.  A.  F. 
Morrison  has  written  "Sketches  in  Russia,"  giving  a  description  of  that  country. 
There  are  other  Australian  writers,  but  I  have  mentioned  a  few  of  the  best. 
Among  the  poets  are  Kendell  and  Adam  Lindsay  Gordon.  Many  of  my 
readers  will  be  familiar  with  Gordon's  poems,  which  are  worthy  of  more  than  a  mere 
passing  mention.  His  wild,  weird,  strange  style  cannot  fail  to  make  an  impres- 
sion upon  the  mind.  There  is  a  tinge  of  sadness  running  through  all  his  poems, 
and  there  is  an  exquisite  beauty  in  his  alliteration — 

"And  sickly,  smoky  shadows  through  the  sleepy  sunlight  swim." 

The  "shadows"  gathered  around  him,  and  he  was  found  in  the  heather  near  his 
home  with  a  bullet  from  his  own  rifle  in  his  brain. 

In  America,  when  we  speak  of  a  squatter,  the  term  applies  to  poor  people 
who  are  given  a  small  piece  of  land,  on  which  they  drag  out  a  miserable  existence, 
as  a  rule.  In  Australia  the  squatters  are  the  wealthiest  class  of  the  community, 
many  of  them  having  a  bank  account  of  half  a  million  pounds  sterling.  It  is  to 
this  country  that  the  impecunious  earl  or  lord  of  England  sends  his  still  more 
impecunious  son  to  "gather  in"  the  shekels  and  the  daughter  of  the  wealthy 


During  a  season  of  drouth  one  squatter  has  lost  as  many  as  80,000  sheep, 
and  the  thing  most  desired  is  rain,  as  the  lack  of  it  means  ruin,  while  a  downpour 
ensures  a  fortune,  the  prohts  on  an  average  station  being — in  a  good  year — 
$50,000.  Sheep  raising  is  the  most  important  industry  in  Australia,  and  the 
country  is  rightly  called  "  The  Land  of  the  Golden  Fleece." 

The  first  thing  that  strikes  a  traveller  or  stranger  on  arriving  in  Australia 
is  the  peculiar  names  of  towns  and  cities.  Here  are  a  few  :  Merricumbene, 
Jillaga,  Nerrigungah,  Nadbilliga,  Cadjangarry,  Bullanamang,  Murrumbucka, 
Woolumla,  Tingaringi,  Wollonbilldy,  Nurenmerenmong,  and  Coppacumbalong. 
These  names,  although  looking  so  formidable,  are  really  soft-sounding  and 

Australians  have  a  peculiar  call  by  which  they  make  themselves  heard  at  a 
great  distance.  The  word  used  is  "coo-ee."  One  hears  it  in  the  cities  as  well 
as  in  the  bush,  and  it  strikes  the  ear  in  a  peculiar  manner  when  first  hearing  it. 
A  party  of  Australians  were  in  London,  and  one  of  the  ladies  of  the  party,  while 
in  the  street,  found  she  had  lost  her  friends  by  some  means  in  the. vast  crowd. 
For  a  time  she  was  at  a  loss  to  know  how  to  make  herself  heard,  but  suddenly 
she  gave  the  well  known  "coo-ee,"  and  her  friends,  recognizing  the  familiar  sound, 
were  soon  at  her  side.  But  imagine  the  surprise  of  the  London  cockney  on  hearing 
this  strange  call !  It  originated  with  the  aborigines,  and  can  be  heard  at  a  much 
greater  distance  than  any  other  call. 

Through  the  kindness  of  the  Railway  Commissioners,  who  gave  me  a  free 
pass,  I  have  been  enabled  to  visit  all  parts  of  the  country.  Railways  trains  in 
Australia  are  the  same  as  in  England.  There  is  the  same  system  of  guards, 
guard's  vans  and  compartments,  comfortably  cushioned,  which  seat  about  six 
persons.  Many  people  object  to  the  English  carriages,  and  dislike  the  idea  of  being 
locked  into  one  of  these  compartments,  as  in  case  of  an  accident  there  is  no 
possible  way  of  getting  out.  Latterly  in  Australia  the  doors  have  been  left 
unlocked  on  some  of  the  lines.  On  all  trains  there  is  a  carriage  or  compartment 
set  apart  for  women  who  are  travelling  alone,  but  none  of  the  carriages  are 
heated,  and  I  have  suffered  more  with  the  cold  while  travelling  by  rail  in  this 
warm  country,  than  ever  in  America,  even  when  the  thermometer  registered  30° 
below  zero.  All  the  employees  are  civil  and  obliging,  an.swering  questions  that 
are  asked  by  helpless,  incapable  travellers,  good  naturedly  assisting  with  bag- 
gage, which,  by  the  way,  is  not  checked  except  for  very  long  journeys.  On  short 
distances,  for  instance,  of  a  day's  travel,  your  baggage  is  simply  labelled  with  the 
name  of  your  destination.     On  arriving  there  you  claim  your  baggage,  but  there  is 


nothing  to  prevent  some  one  else  claiming  it  and  walking  off  with  it,  leaving  you 
hatless  and  shoeless.  The  railway  authorities  are  not  responsible  for  the  loss  of 
any  baggage,  and  it  is  with  a  feeling  of  uncertainty  that  one  sees  their  baggage 
put  into  the  van,  for  you  may  never  see  it  again.  I  think  it  must  be  one  of  the 
pleasures  of  travelling  for  an  Englishman  and  Australian  to  know  they  will  have 
a  scramble  for  their  boxes  at  the  end  of  a  journey.  They  must  like  it,  or  the 
check  system  would  be  introduced.  The  Government  owns  all  the  railways  in 
the  various  colonies,  in  fact  the  Government  owns  and  controls  nearly  all  things 
in  Australia.  On  the  sixth  of  June  I  gave  a  dramatic  recital  in  Geelong,  assisted 
by  Mr.  Kirkwood  Lee,  a  Canadian,  the  finest  tenor  singer  in  Australia,  and  Herr 
Seide,  pianist.  It  may  be  interesting  to  my  readers  to  know  that  Herr  Seide's 
father  made  a  tour  through  America  with  Madam  Anna  Bishop,  and  is  now  the 
leader  of  the  Melbourne  "  Leidertafel" — the  leading  musical  society  of  the  capital 
of  Victoria  Geelong  is  a  city  of  30,000  inhabitants,  and  was  an  important  place 
years  before  the  foundation  of  Melbourne,  and  was  the  headquarters  from  which 
all  the  gold  diggers  set  out  in  the  early  days,  being  fifty  miles  from  Ballarat.  In 
1853-4  the  fare  from  Geelong  to  Ballarat  was  forty-five  dollars,  the  mode  of 
conveyance  being  a  bullock  team.  At  the  present  time  a  first-class  railway  ticket 
costs  five  .shillings.  To  an  American  or  Canadian  the  country  in  Australia  looks 
very  strange  and  rather  dreary.  One  misses  the  little  hamlets  and  home-like 
farm  Houses,  for  in  Australia  nearly  the  entire  population  is  centered  in  the  cities 
and  towns,  the  whole  country,  with  few  exceptions,  being  immense  sheep  farms, 
many  of  the  wealthy  squatters  owning  or  leasing  from  the  Government  estates 
ranging  in  area  from  ten  to  one  hundred  square  miles.  The  tendency  is  the 
same  as  in  England,  namely,  for  the  wealthy  class  to  acquire  all  the  land.  On 
the  eighth  of  June  I  gave  a  reading  in  Ararat,  a  place  noted  in  early  days  as  one 
of  the  richest  alluvial  gold  fields  ever  discovered  in  Australia,  the  population 
at  one  time,  consisting  principally  of  miners,  being  estimated  at  eighty  thousand. 
I  was  pleased  to  learn  that  a  Canadian,  Mr.  Kilborn,  a  son  of  Captain  John 
Kilborn,  of  Newboro,  Leeds  Co.,  Ontario,  was  for  many  years  the  post-master 
and  telegraph  superintendent  at  Ararat.  The  scenery  about  this  place  is  very 
beautiful.  Ballarat,  a  city  of  forty  thousand,  was  to  me  the  most  interesting  city  in 
all  Australia  It  is  surrounded  by  high  hills  of  volcanic  origin,  and  it  is  in  this 
place  that  many  of  the  large  nuggets  of  gold  have  been  found.  On  all  sides  are 
seen  the  mining  shafts,  the  hills  torn,  and  in  many  instances  almost  wholly  cut 
through.  In  the  city  is  situated  the  celebrated  "  Band  and  Albion  "  mine,  the 
shafts  and   drives  of  which   are  one  hundred   and  thirty-three   miles  in  length. 

-'■V  — -fe:--..:^4; 

AROUND  THE   WORLD.  .  57 

Many  of  the  mines  are  underneath  the  city,  and  one  cannot  help  wondering  what 
would  be  the  result  of  a  good  lively  earthquake. 

So  far,  I  have  said  little  about  the  people  of  Australia,  feeling  that  it  is  a 
delicate  subject  to  write  about  the  people  of  any  country,  but  a  book  written  upon 
Australia  with  the  characteristics  of  the  people  not  mentioned,  would  not  be  unlike 
Hamlet  with  Hamlet  left  out.  Australia  is  not  a  cosmopolitan  country,  being 
almost  entirely  made  up  of  English  people  and  their  descendants.  Unlike 
America,  with  its  French,  German,  Irish,  Spanish  and  English  population,  each 
nationality  brmgmg  some  of  its  own  characteristics,  Australia  is  pre-eminently 
English.  The  dislike  of  the  Australian  people  to  Americans  is  proverbial,  and  I 
think  about  the  lowest  term  they  could  apply  to  a  person  would  be  "  Yankee." 
They  look  upon  Canada  with  a  little  more  favor,  it  being  a  sister  colony,  but  still 
they  regard  us  as  aliens,  and  think  us  more  French  than  English.  That  idea  is 
perhaps  kept  alive  by  the  many  writers  who  visit  Canada,  and  write  almost  entirely 
about  the  French  portion  of  Canada,  Quebec.  Mr  Julian  Thomas,  the  descrip- 
tive writer  for  the  largest  paper  in  Melbourne,  in  writing  about  Canada,  dwells 
largely  upon  the  French  elements,  their  manners  and  customs.  He  is  a  gentle- 
man for  whom  I  have  friendship  and  esteem,  one  whose  qualities  I  admire,  but  I 
think  in  his  sketch  on  Canada  he  is  likely  to  give  an  erroneous  idea  to  his  readers, 
giving  the  impression  that  Canada  is  almost  entirely  French. 

Every  author  who  writes  about  Australia — as  he  is  anxious  to  sell  his  books 
here — gives  to  the  people  and  the  country  unqualified  praise,  describes  the  country 
as  the  most  beautiful  in  the  world,  and  the  people  as  having  the  power  of  Jove, 
wisdom  of  Minerva,  and  the  beauty  of  Apollo. 

The  over-weening  self-esteem  which  is  so  apparent  to  strangers,  is  not  sur- 
prising when  one  reads  a  book  such  as  the  historian  Froude  has  written.  I  refer 
to  his  "Oceanica."  He  made  a  flying  trip  through  Australia,  then  wrote  his  nicely 
worded  "  Oceanica."  He  turned  the  rivers  upside  down,  put  mountains  where 
none  existed,  created  beautiful  scenery  where  there  was  only  scrub,  moved  the 
cities  and  towns  at  his  pleasure  ;  but  it  did  not  matter  as  long  as  he  gave  the 
Australians  the  flattery  to  which  they  had  become  accustomed,  and  which  is  like 
sweet-smelling  incense  to  their  nostrils. 

They  have  great  love  for  a  title.  Any  titled  person  visiting  Australia — and 
there  are  many — is  at  once  "dished  up"  in  the  daily  papers  to  an  extent  that  is  a 
surprise  to  any  one  from  America.     One  sees  in  a  Canadian  paper  a  "  personal," 

"  Lord is  at  the  Queen's,  -Rossin  House,  or  Windsor,"  and  that  is  the  end. 

But   in   Australia  they  do  things  differently.     Every  movement  of  the  above- 


mentioned  lord  would  be  chronicled — why  he  came,  from  whence  he  came,  and 
whither  he  is  going.  All  that  is  rather  tiresome  reading.  I  was  rather  amused 
at  the  remark  of  an  English  gentleman.  He  said  to  me,  "  There  is  no  aristocracy 
in  America."  I  replied,  "  Yes,  there  is  an  aristocracy  in  America — the  aristocracy 
of  brains — a  society  that  is  exclusive,  one  in  which  no  titled  noodle  can  enter 
unless  he  has  something  to  recommend  him  besides  the  accident  of  birth."  I  am 
aware  that  there  are  people  in  the  United  States  and  Canada  who  make  them- 
selves ridiculous  by  their  admiration  for  "a  lord."  There  are  shoddy  people  all 
over  the  world,  but  I  was  speaking  of  the  cultivated,  intellectual  portion  of  my 
own  country  and  the  United  States.  I  am  frequently  reminded  of  the  young 
Englishman  who  was  in  the  United  States,  dining  with  a  number  of  Americans. 
He  said  :  "  I  do  not  care  for  this  country  ;  you  have  no  gentry  here."  One  of  the 
gentlemen  asked  :  ''  What  are  we  to  understand  you  mean  by  gentry  ?  "  "  Why 
er — er — people  who  never  do  any  work,  er — and  whose  fathers  never  did  any." 
The  gentleman  replied,  "  O,  yes,  we  have  people  like  that  in  this  country,  but  we 
do  not  call  them  by  that  name.     We  call  them  tramps." 

I  have  read  articles  in  the  Melbourne  papers,  written  by  English  travellers, 
in  which  great  stress  is  laid  upon  the  correct  pronunciation  of  the  English 
language  by  Australians,  and  again  I  have  been  amused  at  the  same  papers  giving 
certain  words  and  expressions  as  "  Yankeeisms."  The  fact  is  that  the  Australians 
speak  the  English  language  in  a  manner  that  is  peculiar  only  to  Australia.  It  is 
neither  an  English  nor  American  accent.  For  instance,  I  have  heard  a  child  ask, 
"  Did  you  see  the  powny  ? "  and  have  been  puzzled  to  know  what  was  meant. 
The  word  pony  is  pronounced  ^oze/«jj/,  the  word  skate  is  skite,  tail  becomes  tile, 
gate  '\s  gite,  lady  is  liday,  etc.  I  could  give  thousands  of  illustrations,  but  these 
few  will  enable  my  readers  to  see  the  very  peculiar  turns  the  English  language 
may  take.  I  have  an  idea,  one  in  which  I  am  firmly  established.  It  is  that  if 
Australia  were  cut  off  from  all  communication  with  England  and  America,  that  in 
a  hundred  years  they  would  speak  a  language  that  would  be  unintelligible  to 
others,  with  no  trace  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  tongue.  In  fact,  they  would  evolve  a 
new  language.  The  love  of  England  is  strong  in  their  hearts — love  of  English 
laws  and  customs.  Even  those  who  have  never  seen  England  speak  of  "home" 
as  lovingly  as  though  they  had  but  recently  left  an  English  home  and  fireside. 
Many  more  members  of  the  aristocracy  visit  Australia  than  Canada.  Many  of 
them  own  large  estates  in  Australia,  and  come  out  either  on  business  or  pleasure, 
it  being  quite  de  rigdour  for  an  English  earl  or  lord  to  make  a  trip  to  the 


I  have  mentioned  the  aristocracy  of  birth,  and  will  now  mention  the  aristocracy 
of  brains.  Charles  Dickens  has  two  sons  residing  in  Melbourne.  Ellen  Terry 
has  a  brother  in  Sydney.  Miss  Braddon's  brother  resides  in  Launceston.  Last 
night's  Herald  records  the  death  of  a  remarkable  woman,  who  had  lived  in 
Melbourne  about  five  years.  A  sketch  of  her  life  is  worth  recording,  for  is  it  not 
true  that  the  aristocracy  of  brains  is  much  rarer  than  that  of  birth?  In  1882 
there  arrived  in  Melbourne  a  most  remarkable  woman,  who,  though  a  celebrity  in 
Europe  and  America,  lived  quietly  in  Melbourne  without  attracting  the  smallest 
public  attention.  Her  name  was  Hortense  Heuze  Hazard,  and  it  is  safe  to  say 
that  a  more  brilliantly  accomplished  woman  never  visited  the  colonies.  A 
sculptress,  held  by  many  European  authorities,  when  in  Rome,  to  be  the  greatest 
living ;  an  authoress,  having  written  much,  both  in  prose  and  verse;  and  a  linguist 
whose  knowledge  of  languages  extended  to  French,  German,  Italian,  English  and 
Russian,  all  of  which  she  spoke  fluently,  and  with  the  literature  of  which  she  had 
an  intimate  acquaintance.  The  lady  left,  among  other  works  from  her  own  chisel, 
three  beautiful  pieces  of  statuary,  which  have  been  exhibited  in  Rome,  England 
and  America,  and  pronounced  by  the  critics  to  be  beyond  all  praise.  One  of  them 
is  emblematical  of  "  Peace."  Another  work,  which  has  been  pronounced  one  of 
the  finest  pieces  of  modern  sculpture,  is  "  I  am  Left  Alone."  A  bereaved  mother 
is  depicted  with  her  two  little  children  ;  the  elder  is  gazing  up  at  her  grief-stricken 
countenance,  as  if  to  ask  the  cause  of  her  woe,  while  the  little  brother,  too  young 
to  be  anything  but  selfish,  is  regardless  of  his  mother's  emotion,  playing  with  a 
bird  he  has  caught.  The  posturing  of  the  figures  is  almost  life-like.  The  marble 
from  which  this  was  wrought  was  obtained  from  a  quarry  which  has  been 
exhausted,  and  has  the  peculiarity  of  giving  a  silvery,  metallic  ring.  Among  her 
rare  and  valuable  possessions  were  some  magnificent  paintings,  some  veritable 

I  must  not  forget  to  mention  the  brother  of  Lord  Wolseley,  who  resides 
near  Melbourne  on  a  large  estate.  A  grandson  of  Robert  Burns  resides  in  New 

I  have  spoken  of  the  loyalty  of  the  Australian  people,  but  they  have  not 
yet  learned  to  distinguish  between  servility  and  loyalty.  With  them  a  king  can 
do  no  wrong.  A  queen,  because  she  is  a  queen,  is  hedged  in  by  Divinity.  In 
this  I  can  not  help  making  comparisons  between  Australians  and  Canadians. 
There  is  in  Canada  a  spirit  of  independence,  a  knowledge  of  power  within  itself, 
which  seems  entirely  lacking  in  Australia  If  a  (question  is  raised  in  Canada,  the 
people  feel  quite  competent  to  deal  with  it  themselves,  and  the  thing  to  be  decided 


is  whether  it  is  best  for  the  country.  Not  so  in  Australia.  The  question  is  :  Do 
they  do  so  in  England  .''  forgetting  that  what  may  be  beneficial  in  England,  may 
not  serve  for  Australia.  Australia  is  a  country  with  a  magnificent  future  ;  also  a 
country  of  "  magnificent  distances  ;"  but,  until  the  people  are  more  cosmopolitan 
in  their  views,  they  will  never  become  a  great  people. 

One  hears  the  term  "  larrikin  "  frequently  used,  a  name  given  to  the  rough 
element  in  Australia.  All  misdemeanor  is  attributed  .to  the  "larrikins,"  but  I 
have  seen  more  ill-breeding  on  Collins  Street — the  fashionable  promenade — 
among  the  well  dressed  women,  more  bad  mannered  women,  than  any  place  in  the 
world.  The  women  of  Australia  are  just  at  the  dress  stage.  At  the  expiration 
of  another  fifty  years  they  may  cultivate  their  minds.  I  must  do  the  people 
justice,  and  do  not  wish  to  speak  harshly,  but  I  think  most  travellers  will  agree 
with  me  in  my  judgment  of  Australian  women.  The  people  are  very  musical ;  in 
fact,  out-door  sports  and  music  occupy  their  time,  to  the  exclusion  of  any  higher 
form  of  intellectual  activity. 

There  is  one  thing  that  is  particularly  noticeable  in  Australia  among  the 
working  classes,  in  fact,  among  all  classes.  They  "  take  their  pleasures  sadly." 
There  is  an  entire  absence  of  anything  like  hilarity.  They  are  not  a  laughter- 
loving  people.  I  have  never,  in  Australia,  seen  a  group  of  merry,  laughing  girls. 
They  seem  to  have  taken  up  the  burden  of  life  early.  I  miss  the  sparkling  eyes, 
the  bright  manner,  the  happy  girlish  laughter,  of  Canadian  girls.  Even  the 
children  are  old  men  and  women  before  they  are  out  of  pinafores.  I  am 
reminded  of  the  person,  who  in  speaking  of  the  celebrated  Dr.  Johnson,  said  he 
would  make  all  the  little  fishes  talk  like  whales.  In  fact  I  have  seen  no  children, 
but  many  premature  old  men  and  women. 

American  children  have  the  reputation  all  over  the  world  of  being  precocious, 
but  they  are  at  least  fifty  years  behind  the  Australian  children  in  precociousness. 
One  does  not  require  to  look  long  for  the  cause.  The  people  are,  as  I  have 
before  said,  in  the  "dress"  stage.  The  little  girls  are  taught  that  to  be  well 
dressed  is  the  aim  and  object  of  their  little  lives.  I  see  daily  small  girls  with 
bustles,  pads,  tornures,  dress  improvers,  and  all  the  paraphernalia  of  fashion. 
Anything  like  a  little  girl  I  have  yet  to  see.  I  am  speaking  of  the  native  born 
Australian  child,  not  of  the  children  of  English  people.  My  eyes  have  been 
refreshed  with  the  sight  of  a  simply  dressed,  comfortable  looking  little  English  or 
American  girl,  and  I  have  gazed  long  and  lovingly  at  them. 

The  prim,  precise,  self-complacent  mites  of  humanity  which  one  sees  in 
Australia  are  the  product  of  artificial  mothers,   women  who  have  not  sufficient 


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self-culture  and  independence  to  dress,  train,  and  educate  their  children  differently 
from  the  so-called  "custom."  All  the  world  over  the  laws  of  "custom"  are 
held  as  sacred  as  the  Decalogue  by  the  Bourgeoisie. 

It  is  a  rare  thing  to  meet  with  a  lady  who  is  possessed  of  business  ability  ; 
but  how  much  rarer  to  meet  one  who,  by  her  capacity  for  business,  has  gained  a 
world-wide  reputation.  Miss  Alice  Cornwall,  of  Melbourne,  has  accomplished 
what  few  men  could  have  done,  by  going  to  England  and  successfully  floating  a 
gold  mine,  the  "  Midas,"  making  four  hundred  and  eighty  thousand  dollars  profit 
for  herself  She  is  well  known  by  her  title  of  "  Princess  Midas."  Miss  Cornwall 
went  to  England,  and  notwithstanding  the  disadvantages  which  a  woman  must 
necessarily  labor  under,  she,  alone  and  unaided,  floated  this  large  company. 
She  was  fully  able  to  explain  the  workings  of  the  mine,  and  teach  the  share- 
holders many  things  of  which  they  were  wholly  ignorant  in  regard  to  mining. 

While  in  England  she  purchased  a  newspaper,  "  The  Sunday  Times,"  she 
being  the  sole  proprietor  ;  also  the  patent  rights  for  the  Australasian  colonies  of 
a  light  called  the  "  Schanschiefif  Light,"  which  she  successfully  floated  in  Mel- 
bourne, making  another  large  fortune.  Having  heard  and  read  so  much  of  Miss 
Cornwall,  I  was  desirous  of  seeing  her,  and  naturally  expected  to  meet  rather  an 
elderly,  masculine  woman.  Judge  of  my  surprise  when  a  young  looking,  hand- 
some lady  appeared,  and  after  shaking  hands  cordially  we  seated  ourselves,  and 
1  soon  felt  that  I  had  known  her  for  years.  She  converses  in  an  easy,  natural 
manner — a  woman  with  a  cultivated  mind,  a  woman  who  would  not  be  content  to 
talk  drivel  to  fashionable  fools.  In  the  course  of  our  conversation  I  asked  her  if 
she  would  be  content  to  lead  a  conventional  life  with  nothing  more  to  interest 
her  than  the  average  society  woman.  She  answered  me  in  her  energetic  manner  : 
"  I  am  sure  I  should  do  something  desperate."  Her  life  is  full  and  complete, 
with  plenty  to  occupy  her  time  and  mind,  and  I  left  her  feeling  that  I  had  met  a 
"  noble  woman  nobly  planned." 


Ij^^HE  great  event  in  Australia,  the  Cup  Race,  took  place  on  the  first  day  of 
I  y  November.  The  day  was  beautifully  fine,  and  an  immense  number 
of  people  gathered  at  Flemington,  the  world-renowned  race-course. 
People  of  all  classes,  grades  and  positions  jostled  each  other ;  the  titled  gentle- 
man and  grocer,  the  Governor  and  pawnbroker,  the  artist  and  "  bookie,"  the 
author  and  jockey,  the  lady  of  rank  and  the  green-grocer's  wife,  the  fastidious 
woman  and  the  demi-monde.  The  handsome  dresses  of  the  women,  the  beautiful 
lawn,  the  many  colored  habits  of  the  jockeys,  the  magnificent  thorough-bred 
horses,  all  make  a  picture  that  Australians  may  well  be  proud  of  About  160,000 
people  were  present,  many  Americans  being  among  the  number,  and  several  titled 
ladies  and  gentlemen  from  England.  Among  the  distinguished  Americans 
present  was  Major  Henry  C.  Dane,  the  celebrated  lecturer,  who  was  on  a  visit  to 
Australia,  gathering  information  for  his  famous  lectures.  I  had  the  pleasure  of 
meeting  him  several  times  during  his  stay  in  Melbourne,  and  a  more  genial  person 
it  would  be  difficult  to  find.  His  descriptive  powers  are  unsurpassed,  and  while 
listening  to  his  wonderful  word-pictures  of  scenes  in  many  lands,  his  strange, 
weird  experiences,  this  thought  enters  one's  mind,  "  Now  1  understand  why  the 
great  gift  of  language  was  given  to  man." 

On  the  lawn  there  was  a  constant  moving  to  and  fro,  while  the  grand  stand 
was  filled  with  people  anxious  to  see  the  great  race.  At  last  the  jockeys  were 
weighed,  and  mounting  their  horses,  they  rode  out  on  to  the  course,  Hales,  the 
famous  jockey,  riding  "  Cranbrook "  ;  "  Silvermine,"  the  beautiful  little  black 
horse,  being  ridden  by  Alec  Robinson;  "Dunlop"  carried  Saunders,  while 
"Australian  Peer"  was  ridden  by  the  young  jockey,  Gorry.  There  were  eighteen 
horses  started  in  the  race,  but  I  have  given  the  names  of  the  favorite  riders  only. 
The  race  was  2^  miles,  and  after  a  little  delay,  they  stood  in  a  line,  some  of  the 
older  horses  standing  like  statues,  waiting  for  the  word  "go,"  while  the  younger 
horses  moved  uneasily.  At  last  the  word  was  given,  and  the  many-colored  line 
started,  every  horse  running  at  its  full  speed.  There  was  scarcely  a  sound  to  be 
heard  from  the  immense  crowd.  In  a  short  time  some  of  the  horses  were  seen  to 
gain  a  little  ;  then  the  excitement  grew  intense,  amid  cries  of  "  '  Silvermine'  is 
ahead  !  "  "  '  Australian  Peer'  will  win  !  "  "  See,  '  Silvermine  '  is  still  ahead  !  "  Then 
another    shout,    and    "  Dunlop "  is  coming  up,  and  then  for  a  time  these    two 



beautiful  horses,  "Silvermine"  and  "  Dunlop,"  are  running  neck  and  neck.  The 
excitement  has  reached  the  climax.  Neck  to  neck,  shoulder  to  shoulder,  every 
muscle  strained,  the  horses  are  nearing  the  winning  post,  when  a  shout  goes  up, 
"  '  Dunlop '  has  won  !  "  Won  the  great  race  by  half  a  head  !  Distance,  2^  miles  ; 
time,  3  minutes,  28^  seconds — the  fastest  time  ever  made. 

The  magnificent  "  Silvermine,"  the  most  beautiful  horse  on  the  Australian 
turf,  has  had  a  strange  record.  He  was  second  in  the  Newmarket  Handicap, 
Caulfield  Cup,  Sydney  Cup,  and  Melbourne  Cup.  On  the  2nd  of  January,  1888, 
during  a  race  in  Sydney,  while  the  horses  were  coming  into  the  straight,  "  Silver- 
mine  "  fell,  throwing  his  rider.  Alec  Robinson.  They  picked  him  up,  but  it  was 
found  that  his  skull  was  fractured,  and  that  night  he  died,  while  "  Silvermine's  " 
back  was  broken,  and  he  died  two  hours  after  the  accident.  Alec  Robinson,  the 
winner  of  many  classic  races,  and  the  gallant  "  Silvermine,"  will  be  no  longer  seen 
on  the  Australian  turf 


Everything  belonging  to  the  plant  and  vegetable  world  seems  to  flourish 
with  almost' tropical  luxuriance  in  Australia.  J.  A.  Froude  states  in  his  "  Oceania  " 
that  the  oats,  barley,  peas,  beans  and  potatoes  were  produced  in  such  luxuriance 
in  Ballarat  that  he  could  believe  Herodotus'  account  of  the  crops  grown  on  the 
plains  of  Babylon.  Unfortunately,  it  is  not  always  the  useful  plant  which  grows 
so  luxuriantly.  The  water-cress,  introduced  into  New  Zealand  some  years  ago, 
has  spread  so  rapidly  as  to  choke  up  the  rivers,  involving  a  great  outlay  yearly 
in  keeping  them  sufficiently  clear  for  navigable  purposes.  Some  thirty  years 
ago  a  Scotch  emigrant  took  with  him  to  Australia  a  thistle  in  a  flower  pot.  The 
Scotch  emigrants  rejoiced  greatly  over  the  national  plant,  and  a  dinner  was  given 
in  honor  of  its  arrival.  Then  it  was  carefully  planted.  It  spread  with  such 
rapidity  that  whole  tracts  of  land  are  rendered  useless,  as  it  defies  extirpation. 
Again,  a  missionary  and  his  wife  took  with  them  from  England  a  plant  of  sweet 
briar  and  planted  it,  with  pardonable  pride,  in  the  garden  of  their  Australian  home. 
It  spread  with  amazing  rapidity,  and  from  a  small  plant  it  developed  into  a  large 
tree,  and  is  equally  as  troublesome  as  the  thisde.  While  speaking  on  this  subject 
it  may  not  be  amiss  to  mention  the  great  rabbit  pest.  Many  years  ago  some 
people  from  England  arrived  in  Australia,  bringing  with  them  a  pair  of  rabbits. 
If  I  were  to  tell  my  readers  the  amount  of  money  which  has  been  expended  in 
trying  to  clear  the  paddocks  of  these  little  animals,  I  am  afraid  they  would  accuse 


me  of  romancing.  Within  the  last  five  years  $5,000,000  have  been  expended. 
The  Governments  are  building  wire  fences  between  the  different  colonies,  the  one 
between  South  Australia  and  Victoria  costing  over  $300,000.  The  Government 
of  New  South  Wales  has  offered  $125,000  to  any  one  who  can  successfully  rid 
that  colony  of  the  rabbit  pest.  M.  Pasteur,  the  celebrated  French  scientist, 
claims  to  have  discovered  in  the  microbes  of  the  chicken  cholera  the  means  of 
ridding  the  country  of  this  great  plague.  His  nephew  is  at  present  in  New  South 
Wales  making  preparations  for  the  experiment.  One  can  not  help  thinking  that 
sentiment  has  been  the  foe  of  the  colonist,  but  who  would  imagine  the  humble 
sweet  briar,  Scotch  thistle,  and  a  pair  of  rabbits,  could  produce  such  havoc  .'* 
Thinking  of  these  people  bringing  these  things  so  many  miles  across  the  sea,  I 
am  reminded  of  an  affecting  little  scene  which  I  witnessed  in  Sydney  on  the 
arrival  of  a  ship.  An  old  Irish  woman  was  standing  on  the  dock  watching  the 
ship  come  in,  bringing  her  son  from  Ireland.  After  he  landed  he  handed  her  an 
odd-looking  parcel.  As  soon  as  she  saw  it  she  reverently  knelt  down  and  kissed 
it.      It  was  a  piece  of  sod  from  her  native  bog,  a  handful  of  Irish  soil. 






O    I 

M    O 


J  STARTED  in  May  to  visit  Queensland,  the  northern  and  more  tropical 
portion  of  Australia,'  a  distance  of  four  days  travel.  The  journey  from 
Melbourne  to  Sydney  is  by  no  means  interesting.  Allbury  is  on  the  border 
of  New  South  Wales,  where  we  change  cars,  and  the  only  thing  which  attracts  the 
eye  is  the  beautiful  waratah,  the  native  flower  of  New  South  Wales.  Arriving 
in  Sydney,  the  following  day  we  take  the  coasting  steamer  "  Gl.  Langworth," 
wishing  to  make  the  journey  up  by  water  and  back  by  rail.  One  takes  an  Australian 
coasting  steamer  with  a  feeling  of  uncertainty  as  to  whether  one's  destination  will 
ever  be  reached,  or  you  will  be  landed  on  a  rock  in  the  Pacific.  However, 
we  made  the  journey  safely,  with  nothing  more  serious  occurring  than  the  usual 
nial-de-mer.  We  passed  within  sight  of  the  coast  line  all  the  way,  and  therein 
lies  the  danger,  as  in  case  of  a  storm  there  is  not  sufficient  sea-room,  and 
frequently  vessels  are  wrecked  on  the  dangerous  coast.  On  the  evening  of  the 
third  day  at  sea  we  entered  the  beautiful  Brisbane  river,  with  mangroves  growing 
on  one  side  and  graceful  bamboo  trees  on  the  other.  The  foliage  and 
scenery  on  this  river  are  very  beautiful,  and  there  are  many  little  nooks  that 
would  delight  an  artist.  Nature  seems  to  have  planned  this  spot  as  a 
surprise  after  the  dullness  of  this  gloomy,  forbidding  coast  line.  People  were 
rowing  about  the  river  in  small  row  boats,  hidden  at  times  by  a  group  of 
mangrove  trees,  then  suddenly  appearing  again  from  under  the  branches  of  the 
beautiful  bamboo 

Brisbane,  the  capital  of  Queensland,  is  a  small  city  of  ninety  thousand,  with 
streets  nicely  laid  out  and  a  number  of  handsome  buildings,  among  the  finest 
being  the  National  Bank  of  Queensland  ;  the  manager  is  Mr.  W.  H.  Glenny, 
whom  many  of  my  readers  will  know,  as  at  one  time  he  was  in  Canada  in  the 
British  North  American  Bank  in  Montreal.  It  was  a  pleasure  meeting  some  one 
in  this  far-off  land  who  was  acquainted  with  some  of  my  Canadian  friends.  All 
the  public  buildings  in  Brisbane  are  handsome,  as  in  fact  they  are  all  over 
Australia.  While  in  every  city  and  town  in  Australia  there  are  handsome 
botanical  gardens,  the  most  interesting  one  to  me  is  in  Brisbane.  The  trees  are 
more  tropical  ;  on  one  side  there  is  a  group  of  tall  cocoanut  trees  ;  the  strange 
bottle  tree  of  Java,  oddly  colored  foliage  the  ever  graceful  bamboo,  and 
numberless  handsome  palm  trees. 



The  museum  is  well  worth  visiting,  as  one  sees  many  curiosities  from  the 
southern  seas,  strange  shells,  beautiful  coral,  the  implements  used  by  the  blacks 
in  early  times,  the  war  clubs,  drums  and  spears  used  by  the  natives.  In  northern 
Queensland  there  are  more  blacks  than  in  any  part  of  Australia.  In  Melbourne 
one  seldom  sees  a  native  ;  they  are  rapidly  dying  off,  but  in  Brisbane  they  are  still 
to  be  seen,  and  were,  to  me,  one  of  the  sights  of  the  place.  I  had  heard  a  great 
deal  about  the  blacks  throwing  the  "  boomerang,"  and  always  had  a  great 
curiosity  to  witness  it.  In  Brisbane  my  curiosity  was  gratified.  Thinking  that 
people  who  told  about  the  natives  throwing  the  "boomerang"  were  "romancing," 
I  was  all  the  more  struck  with  wonder  when  I  saw  it.  The  "  boomerang  "  is  a 
piece  of  wood  cut  in  half  circular  form,  like  a  quarter  moon,  nothing  more.  The. 
black  who  threw  it  for  us  was  as  dirty  and  unkempt  as  blacks  usually  are,  but  I 
forgot  the  dirt  and  untidiness  when  I  saw  him  throw  this  weapon.  He  took  the 
thing  in  his  hand,  poised  himself,  and  threw  it.  It  went  whirling  through  the  air 
at  a  terrific  pace,  traversed  a  circle  of  about  i,ooo  feet ;  turning  in  the  air,  it  came 
whirling  round  and  round,  and  fell  at  his  feet.  He  looked  around  with  a  smile, 
again  picked  it  up,  once  more  sent  it  off  whizzing  and  whirring  through  the  air, 
and  again  it  came  back  to  his  feet.  It  looked  almost  like  some  supernatural 
agency,  and  is  one  of  the  great  feats  of  the  blacks,  as  no  white  man  has  ever  yet 
learned  to  throw  the  "boomerang." 

There  are  tropical  fruits  in  abundance  in  Brisbane.  I  think  the  most 
delicious  pineapples  in  the  world  grow  in  Queensland  ;  bananas,  date  plums  and 
hundreds  of  fruits  with  which  I  was  wholly  unacquainted.  My  first  experience 
in  eating  guavas  was  in  Brisbane.  It  is  a  fruit  that  looks  like  a  small  green 
lemon,  and  I  can  assure  my  readers  that  a  green  lemon  is  much  preferable  to 
guavas.  However,  people  told  me  that  it  was  an  acquired  taste.  I  have  no 
doubt  of  it,  but  it  would  take  too  long  to  acquire  it  ;  life  is  too  short.  While  I 
was  in  Brisbane  there  was  a  great  political  contest  between  Sir  Samuel  Griffiths 
and  Sir  Thomas  Mcllwraith.  Sir  Samuel  Griffiths  is  the  Prime  Minister  of 
Queensland.  I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  him,  and  a  more  kindly,  gentlemanly 
person  I  have  never  met — one  who  cannot  fail  to  be  popular,  and  make  many 
friends,  as  he  has  all  the  geniality  and  savoir-faire  of  a  man  of  the  world.  The 
Hon.  Mr.  Dutton,  Commissioner  of  Railways,  kindly  gave  me  a  free  pass,  and  I 
was  enabled  to  visit  many  places  in  Queensland.  One  could  write  a  large  book 
on  that  colony  alone,  as  it  is  particularly  interesting — interesting  to  the  traveller, 
the  geologist,  the  scientist,  and  the  artist. 

After  remaining  some  time  in  Queensland,  I  started  by  rail  for  Melbourne, 


wishing  to  make  the  journey  overland  in  order  to  see  the  country.  From  Bris- 
bane to  Ipswich  the  road  is  rugged  in  the  extreme.  We  pass  through  immense 
cuttings  and  long  tunnels,  passing  the  coal  mines  from  which  Brisbane  is  supplied. 
There  is  a  gradual  ascent  from  Brisbane  to  Toowoomba,  the  latter  place  being 
2,400  feet  above  Brisbane,  situated  in  the  Darling  Downs.  We  pass  the  opal 
mines,  from  which  so  many  beautiful  opals  are  taken.  These  stones  are  seen  in 
great  numbers  in  all  the  jewelry  stores  in  Australia,  and  the  mine  segms  inex- 
haustible. The  Queensland  opals  have  a  world-wide  reputation.  I  have  seen 
large  stones  a  foot  in  length  and  over,  with  a  seam  running  the  entire  length,  two 
or  three  inches  in  breadth,  of  this  lovely  rainbow-hued  stone.  All  the  most 
delicate  tints  are  reflected,  as  though  nature,  in  one  of  her  generous  moods,  had 
gathered  together  all  her  most  beautiful  colors  in  sea  and  sky, -and  then  having 
melted  together  moonlight  and  the  hues  of  the  rainbow,  had  suddenly  solidified 
and  imprisoned  all  in  a  transparent  prison. 


"  The  Sunbeam  loved  the  Moonbeam, 

And  followed  her  low  and  high  ; 
But  the  Moonbeam  fled  and  hid  her  head — 

She  was  so  shy — so  shy. 

The  Sunbeam  wooed  with  passion. 

Ah  !  he  was  a  lover  bold, 
And  his  heart  was  afire  with  mad  desire 

For  the  Moonbeam  pale  and  cold. 

She  fled  like  a  dream  before  him, 

Her  hair  was  a  shining  sheen  ; 
And,  oh,  that  Fate  would  annihilate 

The  space  that  lay  between. 

Just  as  the  Day  lay  panting 

In  the  arms  of  the  Twilight  dim. 
The  Sunbeam  caught  the  one  he  sought 

And  drew  her  close  to  him. 

But  out  of  his  warm  arms  started. 

And  stirred  by  love's  first  shock, 
She  sprang  afraid,  like  a  trembling  maid, 

And  hid  in  the  niche  of  a  rock. 


And  the  Sunbeam  followed  and  found  her,  * 

And  led  her  to  love's  own  feast, 
And  they  were  wed  on  that  rocky  bed. 

And  the  dying  Day  was  their  priest. 

And,  lo  !  the  beautiful  Opal, 

That  rare  and  wondrous  gem, 
Where  the  Moon  and  Sun  blend  into  one. 

Is  the  child  that  was  born  to  them." 

I  must  not  forget  to  mention,  while  speaking  of  Toowoomba,  that  it  is  near 
this  place  that  Mr.  James  Tyson  lives,  the  wealthiest  man  in  Australia.  He  is  ' 
worth  about  $30,000,000,  and  is  familiarly  known  as  "Jimmy  Tyson,"  a  man 
who  has  devoted  his  life  to  money-making.  It  is  only  latterly  that  he  has  ridden 
first-class  on  either  steamboat  or  train.  There  are  no  colleges  founded  by  him, 
no  charitable  institutions,  no  homes  for  the  poor  or  sick.  He  is  a  man  who  will 
die  "  unwept,  unhonored  and  unsung."  About  200  miles  from  Toowoomba  we 
come  to  Tenterfield,  N.S.W.,  near  which  place  are  the  diamond  mines,  and  two 
large  gold  and  silver  mines,  called  the  Red  Rock  and  White  Rock.  Along  this 
road  the  engine  puffs  and  labors,  going  very  slowly,  at  times  scarcely  moving  up 
the  heavy  grades  and  through  the  deep  cuttings.  Mountains,  mountains,  on 
every  side.  Hills  stretching  away  as  far  as  the  eye  can  see,  valleys  in  which  the 
sunlight  seldom  falls,  interminable  gum  trees,  the  foliage  and  grass  dressed  in  a 
sad  green,  as  though  in  mourning  for  their  isolation.  No  words  can  describe  the 
solemn  grandeur  of  this  landscape.  Nothing' to  brighten  it ;  no  flowers,  no  bright 
foliage  ;  but  the  solemn  impressiveness  and  the  lonely  grandeur  leaves  a  lasting 
memory.  The  mountains  are  forbidding  ;  even  the  very  trees  seem  to  make  a 
protest  against  the  invasion  of  their  solitude.  They  stand  like  sentinels  guarding 
the  treasure  buried  in  the  mountains. 

After  a  time  we  come  upon  a  little  agricultural  land,  and  see  the  home  of 
some  wealthy  squatter  ;  then  again  the  hut  of  the  poor  man.  Dr.  Cameron  Lees, 
in  writing  of  Australia,  says  there  are  no  poor  in  this  country.  Let  him  take  the 
overland  train  from  Brisbane  to  Melbourne,  and  see  the  miles  of  huts,  and  he 
would  write  differently.  Houses  that  do  not  look  fit  for  human  habitation  ;  one 
that  I  noticed  had  no  windows,  but  as  the  train  passed  slowly  by,  the  door  opened 
and  a  group  of  children  came  out  ;  one,  a  little,  flaxen-haired  girl,  came  to  look 
with  wonder  at  us.  I  could  see  her  plainly — a  lovely  little  thing  with  her  blue 
eyes  and  flaxen  hair — and  I  could  not  help  wondering  if,  in  later  life,  she  would 


be  ame  to  see  any  poetry  in  the  rugged  hills  and  strange  landscape  which 
surrounded  her.  Occasionally  a  green  parrot  flitted  among  the  trees,  while  the 
laughing  jackass,  with  its  queer,  quizzical  face,  added  to  the  strangeness  of  the 
scene.  About  four  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  came  to  the  Hawksburn. River, 
which  we  were  obliged  to  cross  on  a  ferry  boat,  then  take  a  train  on  the  other 
side.  An  American  firm  have  taken  the  contract  to  build  a  railway  bridge  across 
the  river,  to  cost  $5,000,000. 

About  seven  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  approach  the  beautiful  Paramatta 
river,  and  an  occasional  orange  grove  is  to  be  seen,  giving  color  and  variety  to 
the  landscape.  The  orange  groves  of  the  Paramatta  are  worth  going  many  miles 
to  see.  It  is  n  beautiful  sight — the  well  kept  orchards,  the  trees  laden  with  their 
golden  fruit.  About  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  we  arrive  in  Sydney.  It  is 
Sunday,  and  after  a  rest  we  decide  to  visit  the  art  gallery,  which  is  open  to  the 
public  from  ten  a.m.  to  five  p.m. 

It  was  a  great  pleasure  to  see  the  people,  mostly  the  working  class,  moving 
quietly  about,  looking  at  the  pictures.  There  was  no  noise,  although  the  gallery 
was  filled  ;  no  pushing,  but  all  enjoying  the  privilege  of  looking  at  the  valuable 
works  of  art.  Working  men  with  their  children,  the  father  pointing  out  to  the 
little  ones  a  picture  which  pleased  him,  and  to  listen  to  the  remarks  of  the  small 
critics  was  very  amusing.  Melbourne,  with  all  its  wealth,  universities,  and 
education,  has  not  yet  become  sufficiently  liberal  minded  to  open  its  galleries 
and  museums  to  the  public  on  Sundays. 


^-^Ip;-^  AS  MAN  I A  is  about  a  day's  sail  from  Melbourne.  The  population  is 
I Y  about  137,000.  The  two  cities,  Launceston  and  Hobart,  are  nicely 
^  laid  out  and  beautifully  situated.  The  Mount  Bishoff  tin  mine  is  one 
of  the  curiosities  of  the  island,  and  the  largest  tin  mine  in  the  world.  A  friend 
presented  me  with  some  beautiful  specimens  from  this  mine,  which  I  shall  value 
highly  as  a  souvenir  of  this  southern  land.  One  visits  Tasmania  with  the 
consciousness  that  it  is  the  most  southern  land  on  the  globe,  that  is,  the  only 
habitable  land.  •  One  sees  evidences  of  the  early  convict  days  on  every  hand. 
While  the  convicts  have  nearly  all  passed  away  into  the  "great  unknown,"  their 
work  remains  a  lasting  monument  of  the  early  days  of  oppression  and  wrong. 
There  is  a  home  for  the  old  surviving  convicts  at  Launceston,  who  are  cared  for 
by  the  government.  While  in  Launceston  I  called  at  this  home  to  hear  for 
myself  the  story  of  a  very  celebrated  convict,  Charles  Banfield.  He  is  eighty- 
nine  years  old,  with  as  kindly  a  face  as  I  ever  looked  upon — no  trace  of  the 
criminal,  for  in  fact  he  had  committed  no  crime.  I  was  face  to  face  with  the  man 
who  is  well  known  to  have  been  the  character  from  whom  Marcus  Clarke  drew 
"  Rufus  Dawes,"  in  that  well-known  book,  "  For  the  Term  of  His  Natural 
Life" — face  to  face  with  a  man  who  had  suffered  probably  more  than  any  man 
living  at  the  present  time.  The  thought  of  "  Jean  Valjein  "  came  to  my  mind. 
While  the  English  people  were  sympathising  with  the  Siberian  prisoners,  while 
all  the  world  was  weeping  over  the  wrongs  of  the  slaves  of  the  United  States, 
here  in  this  fair  land  there  were  wrongs  committed,  and  sufferings  borne,  that 
would  make  even  the  angels  weep,  could  they  but  know. 

Charles  Banfield  was  born  in  Bath,  England.  While  in  London,  with  a 
number  of  young  friends,  one  evening,  he  was  guilty  of  some  slight  offence  that 
in  these  days  would  not  be  noticed,  and  horrible  as  it  may  appear,  he  was 
transported  for  life,  put  into  a  convict  ship  and  sent  to  Australia,  and  remained 
in  Sydney  for  a  number  of  years,  always  with  the  hope  of  liberty,  the  one  desire 
in  common  with  all  mankind.  In  1830  he  made  his  escape,  in  company  with 
four  others,  and  turned  bush-ranger,  making  a  rule  not  to  injure  any  one,  but  to  levy 
supplies  from  the  settlers.  He  was  about  seven  months  leading  this  life  ;  if 
caught,  it  meant  death.  They  were  betrayed  to  the  police  by  one  of  their  own 
party,  and  sentenced  to  be  hanged,  at  Windsor,  New  South  Wales.     Six  other 



convicts  were  to  suffer  the  same  fate,  the  coffins  all  standing  along  in  a  row. 
The  first  one  hanged  was  a  young  man  of  seventeen,  who  fought  for  his  life, 
and  disabled  the  hangman  ;  he  paid  the  penalty,  but  so  injured  the  hangman  that 
he  was  unable  to  proceed  with  the  others,  and  Chas.  Banfield  was  left  10  suffer 
for  many  a  long  year.  His  sentence  was  commuted  to  imprisonment  in  the 
chain  gang  at  Norfolk  Island  for  life.  For  ten  long  years  he  wore  these  chains, 
dragging  out  his  miserable  life,  every  year  an  eternity — an  eternity  of  woe. 
His  life  at  last  became  so  unbearable  that  he  determined  to  commit  some 
offence,  in  order  that  he  might  get  hanged.  He  and  some  other  prisoners 
decided  to  fire  a  hay  stack,  but  instead  of  the  sentence  of  death,  which  he  longed 
for,  he  was  given  300  lashes.  The  flesh  on  his  back  hung  in  shreds,  and  he 
spat  quantities  of  blood.  During  his  stay  on  Norfolk  Island  he  saw  five  men 
lashed  to  death  ;  each  had  received  .300  lashes.  It  was  seldom  that  a  prisoner 
survived  that  fearful  punishment,  but  poor  Chas.  Banfield,  with  his  iron 
constitution,  bore  this  and  many  besides.  At  last  the  prisoners  on  the  island 
growing  desperate,  it  was  resolved  to  take  possession  of  the  island,  but  one  of 
the  number  was  suspected  of  turning  traitor,  and  it  was  determined  to  kill  him  ; 
but  Charles  Banfield  objected  to  this  shedding  of  blood,  and  thus  incurred  the 
displeasure  of  his  fellow-prisoners,  who  that  night  stabbed  the  suspected  man, 
and  in  the  morning  they  came  forward  and  swore  they  saw  Charles  Banfield 
commit  the  deed.  He  again  received  300  lashes,  which  the  doctor  told  the 
commandant  would  kill  him.  The  commandant  ordered  four  flaggelators, 
instead  of  one,  to  apply  the  lash,  in  order  that  they  might  strike  hard.  This 
fiend  in  human  shape  had  this  carried  into  effect,  and  after  lashing  him  until  his 
back  was  a  mass  of  quivering  flesh,  the  poor  tortured  fellow  was  taken  to  the 
hospital,  where  he  was  obliged  to  remain  for  three  years.  At  the  expiration 
of  that  time  he  was  ordered  to  go  to  Sydney.  He  had  worn  the  chains  so  long 
on  his  ankles  that  the  flesh  had  grown  in  a  fold  over  the  chains,  and  after 
the  weight  was  removed  he  could  only  walk  with  the  greatest  difficulty.  He 
had  been  so  long  accustomed  to  the  weight  that  it  was  almost  impossible  to  walk 
without  it.  At  last  a  glimmer  of  light  began  to  dawn  upon  this  man,  and  the 
Governor  hearing  about  him,  went  to  Norfolk  Island  to  make  enquiries  into  his 
case.  There  was  nothing  could  be  said  against  him  except  that  he  always  tried 
to  get  his  liberty.  The  Governor  had  no  power  to  release  him,  but  he  ordered 
him  to  be  sent  to  Sydney,  in  an  institution,  promising  that  at  the  expiration  of 
three  years  he  should  be  set  free.  He  went  to  Sydney  and  his  time  had  nearly 
expired,  when  the  Governor  was  recalled  to  England.     Charles  Banfield  was  left 


again  without  hope  or  friends,  and  was  again  sent  back  to  Norfolk  Island.  Once 
again  the  hope  of  liberty  and  escape  seized  him,  and  he  took  a  small  boat  and 
put  out  to  sea  in  it,  thinking  the  dangers  of  the  sea  less  terrible  than  the 
inhumanity  of  man.  He  was  pursued  and  brought  back,  once  more  to  suffer 
terrible  punishment.  The  convict  system  being  abolished,  he  lives  now  in 

Lord  Roseberry,  while  on  a  visit  to  Australia  a  few  years  ago,  took  a  deep 
interest  in  Charles  Banfield's  history,  went  to  visit  him  in  Tasmania,  then 
examined  all  the  records  in  Sydney  to  verify  the  truth  of  his  story.  After  Lord 
Roseberry  returned  to  England  he  visited  the  birth  place  of  Charles  Banfield,  and 
discovered  that  he  belonged  to  a  good  family,  also  a  will  bequeathing  to  different 
members  of  the  family  portions  of  property,  mentioning  that  nothing  was  left  to 
Charles  Banfield,  "as  he  had  disgraced  the  family."  He,  the  martyr  oi  the  family, 
who  had  suffered  pains  and  tortures,  not  as  the  martyrs  of  old  suffered  for 
religious  convictions,  but  for  some  youthful  folly,  some  slight  offence  ;  suffered 
these  tortures  that  the  law  might  be  satisfied.  Let  us  who  pride  ourselves  upon 
our  charity,  remembering  we  have  been  Christians  for  two  thousand  years,  think 
of  Charles  Banfield,  and  ask  ourselves  what  we  have  done  for  humanity. 


JN  October  I  visited  Adelaide,  the  capital  of  South  Australia,  and  was  much 
pleased  with  the  beauty  of  the  place.  The  streets  are  broad  and  beautifully 
kept,  but  in  matters  of  street  conveyance  Melbourne  is  immeasurably 
superior  ;  but,  notwithstanding  that,  the  city  presents  a  nicer  appearance  than 
Melbourne.  To  many  people  Adelaide  appears  ''  Quakerish,"  but  it  does  not 
impress  me  in  that  way.  The  public  buildings  are  splendidly  built,  especially  the 
Post  Office  and  towered  Town  Hall,  the  Exchange,  and  numerous  banks.  Like 
all  Australian  cities  and  towns,  it  possesses  magnificent  botanical  gardens,  which 
alone  make  a  visit  to  Adelaide  agreeable.  But,  again,  like  all  Australian  cities,  it 
is  miserably  lighted.  The  city  is  not  built  upon  the  sea.  Largs  Bay  is  the 
seaport.  There  is  an  excellent  hotel  at  this  place,  with  all  modern  improvements. 
Glenelg  is  another  fashionable  resort,  where  the  wealthy  people  from  the  city 
spend  the  summer  months. 

About  a  day's  ride  by  rail  from  Adelaide  is  the  famous  ostrich  farm,  where 
there  are  about  500  ostriches,  and  the  value  of  feathers  exported  yearly  is  about 
$r 6,000.  While  pulling  their  feathers  a  little  finesse  is  required.  The  old  birds, 
accustomed  to  being  plucked,  will  stand  quietly,  but  the  younger  ones  object  to 
being  denuded  of  their  finery,  and  it  is  necessary  to  pull  a  small  bag  over  their 
heads,  with  an  opening  to  admit  air,  when  they  will  stand  quietly  while  their 
beautiful  feathers  are  being  plucked. 

While  in  Adelaide  I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Mr.  Worshop,  the  author 
of  the  "  History  of  Adelaide  ; "  also  Sir  Edwin  Smith,  the  popular  mayor. 

I  have  endeavored  in  writing  this  little  work  on  Australia  to  avoid  dull 
statistics  ;  simply  to  write  of  the  country  as  I  saw  it,  and  although  one  might  fill 
volumes  of  matter  about  this  strange  world,  I  have  only  lightly  touched  upon 
what  I  considered  the  most  interesting  part  of  it.  In  writing  of  Australia  one 
requires  a  rugged  pen,  not  a  poetical  one  ;  the  gloomy  mountains  and  melancholy 
forests  could  only  inspire  sombre  poetry.  Dante's  "Inferno"  could  well  have 
been  written  here. 

"The  Australian  mountain  forests  are  funereal,  secret,  stern.  Their  soli- 
tude is  desolation.  They  seem  to  stifle,  in  their  black  gorges,  a  story  of 
sullen  despair.  No  tender  sentiment  is  nourished  in  their  shade.  In  other  lands 
the  dying  year  is  mourned,  the  falling  leaves  drop  lightly  on  his  bier.      In  the 



Australian  forests  no  leaves  fall.  The  savage  vi^inds  shout  among  the  rock  clefts. 
From  the  melancholy  gums  strips  of  white  bark  hang  and  rustle.  The  very 
animal  life  of  these  frowning  hills  is  either  grotesque  or  ghostly.  Great  grey 
kangaroos  hop  noiselessly  over  the  coarse  grass.  Flights  of  white  cockatoos 
stream  out,  shrieking  like  evil  souls.  The  sun  suddenly  sinks,  and  the  mopokes 
burst  out  into  horrible  peals  of  semi-human  laughter.  The  natives  aver  that, 
when  night  comes,  from  out  the  bottomless  depth  of  some  lagoon  the  Bunyip 
rises,  and,  in  form  like  a  monstrous  sea-calf,  drags  his  loathsome  length  from  out 
the  ooze.  From  a  corner  of  the  silent  forest  rises  a  dismal  chant,  and  around  a 
fire  dance  natives  painted  like  skeletons.  All  is  fear-inspiring  and  gloomy.  No 
bright  fancies  are  linked  with  the  memories  of  the  mountains.  Hopeless  explorers 
have  named  them  out  of  their  sufferings — Mount  Misery,  Mount  Dreadful,  Mount 
Despair.     As  when  among  sylvan  scenes  in  places 

'  Made  green  with  the  running  of  rivers. 
And  gracious  with  temperate  air,' 

the  soul  is  soothed  and  satisfied,  so,  placed  before  the  frightful  grandeur  of  these 
barren  hills,  it  drinks  in  their  sentiment  of  defiant  ferocity,  and  is  steeped  in 

"Australia  has  rightly  been  named  the  Land  of  the  Dawning.  Wrapped  in 
the  midst  of  an  early  morning,  her  history  looms  vague  and  gigantic.  The  lonely 
horseman  riding  between  the  moonlight  and  the  day  sees  vast  shadows  creeping 
across  the  shelterless  and  silent  plains,  hears  strange  noises  in  the  primeval  forest 
where  flourishes  a  vegetation  long  dead  in  other  lands,  and  feels,  despite  his  for- 
tune, that  the  trim  utilitarian  civilization  which  bred  him  shrinks  into  insignificance 
beside  the  contemptuous  grandeur  of  forest  and  ranges  coeval  with  an  age  in 
which  European  scientists  have  cradled  his  own  race. 

"  There  is  a  poem  in  every  form  of  tree  or  flower,  but  the  poetry  which  lives 
in  the  trees  and  flowers  of  Australia  differs  from  that  of  other  countries. 
Europe  is  the  home  of  knightly  song,  of  bright  deeds  and  clear  morning  thought. 
Asia  sinks  beneath  the  weighty  recollections  of  her  past  magnificence,  as  the 
Suttee  sinks,  jewel  burdened,  upon  the  corpse  of  dread  grandeur,  destructive  even 
in  its  death.  America  swiftly  hurries  on  her  way,  rapid,  glittering,  insatiable  even 
as  one  of  her  own  giant  waterfalls.  From  the  jungles  of  Africa,  and  the  creeper- 
tangled  groves  of  the  Islands  of  the  South,  arise,  from  the  glowing  hearts  of  a 
thousand  flowers,  heavy  and  intoxicating  odors — the  Upas-poison  which  dwells 
in  barbaric  sensuality.      In  Australia  alone  is  to  be  found  the  grotesque,  the  weird. 


the  strange  scribblings  of  nature  learning  how  to  write.  Some  see  no  beauty  in 
our  trees  without  shade,  our  flowers  without  perfume,  our  birds  who  cannot  sing, 
and  our  beasts  who  have  not  yet  learned  to  walk  on  all  fours.  But  the  dweller  in 
the  wilderness  acknowledges  the  subtle  charm  of  this  fantastic  land  of  monstrosities. 
He  becomes  familiar  with  the  beauty  of  loneliness.  Whispered  to  by  the  myriad 
tongues  of  the  wilderness,  he  learns  the  language  of  the  barren  and  the  uncouth, 
and  can  read  the  hieroglyphs  of  haggard  gum  trees,  blown  into  odd  shapes, 
distorted  with  fierce  hot  winds,  or  cramped  with  cold  nights,  when  the  Southern 
Cross  freezes  in  a  cloudless  sky  of  icy  blue.  The  phantasmagoria  of  that  wild 
dreamland  termed  the  Bush  interprets  itself,  and  the  poet  of  our  desolation  begins 
to  comprehend  why  free  Esau  loved  his  heritage  of  desert  sand  better  than  all 
the  bountiful  richness  of  Egypt." 

END    OF    PART    I. 

PART     II 


JN  October  I  took  passage  by  the  Orient  steamer  "Orizaba"  for  England, 
intending  to  stop  at  Ceylon,  Egypt,  Jerusalem  and  Naples.  I  think  no  one 
can  contemplate  a  six  weeks'  voyage  by  sea  with  any  degree  of  pleasure. 
For  one  week  it  is  very  well,  but  before  the  expiration  of  six,  nothing  but  dull 
monotony  remains.  So  monotonous  does  it  become  that  even  the  most  trivial 
things  are  accepted  by  way  of  amusement — a  shoal  of  whales  creates  enthusiasm  ; 
a  passing  steamer  is  hailed  with  delight.  I  do  not  find  among  my  fellow- 
passengers  people  of  the  same  intellectual  calibre  as  were  on  the  "  Mariposa  " 
from  San  Francisco  to  Australia.  England  is  well  represented,  nearly  the  whole 
passenger  list  being  English,  I  being  the  only  Canadian.  There  is  the  usual 
material  for  romance.  The  lady  who  sits  opposite  me  at  table  is  going  to 
Calcutta  to  meet  her  affianced  husband.  He  has  served  for  her  as  faithfully  as 
Jacob  served  for  Rachel,  and  I  think  her  worth  all  the  years  of  patient  waiting, 
for  she  is  a  charming  woman.  Mr.  Storey,  a  son  of  the  Royal  Academician,  is 
among  the  passengers  ;  also  Mr.  Warde,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  dancers  in 
England,  who  is  just  returning  to  England  from  a  two  years'  professional  engage- 
ment in  Australia.  Among  the  most  charming  people  I  have  ever  met  is  Mrs. 
Kohn,  an  English  lady  ;  a  more  delightful  travelling  companion  it  would  be 
impossible  to  find.  Gay,  bright,  witty,  well  read,  and  accomplished,  charming, 
winning  little  Mrs.  Kohn,  I  wonder  if  we  shall  ever  meet  again  on  this  side  the 
great  "  river,"  or  if,  after  "crossing  over,"  we  shall  know  each  other  there  ? 

The  Indian  Ocean,  although  calm  so  far  during  our  voyage  upon  it,  is  not 
always  so  placid,  but  is  frequently  disturbed  by  that  most  dangerous  thing  at  sea, 
a  cyclone.  The  sailing  vessels  which  are  unfortunate  enough  to  be  caught  in 
these  cyclones  invariably  go  down  ;  but  a  large  steamer  can  run  from  them, 
therefore  my  fears  are  allayed.  Our  Sundays  spent  upon  the  Indian  Ocean  were 
as  dull  as  such  days  invariably  are  at  sea.  All  amusements  were  put  aside.  We 
had  the  usual  Sunday  service.     People  hear  a  great  deal  about  the  impressiveness 



of  service  at  sea,  but  it  is  all  imagination,  as  there  is  nothing  solemn  or  impressive 
about  it,  many  of  the  male  passengers  smoking  in  the  smoking-rooms  and 
children  running  about  the  decks. 


Ceylon,  the  Pearl  of  the  Sea,  and  entrance  to  the  gates  of  Paradise,  the 
outer  circle  of  wonderful  India,  the  home  of  the  occult  sciences  and  Eastern 
magnificence,  of  wonderful  temples  and  magnificent  tombs.  India,  whose  air  is 
impregnated  with  the  "wisdom  of  all  the  ages,"  lies  just  within  our  reach. 
Ceylon  at  one  time  formed  a  part  of  the  main  land  of  India,  but  the  action  of  the 
waters  through  countless  ages  has  washed  it  off,  leaving  a  space  of  sixty  miles 
between  it  and  the  main  land.  In  writing  of  India  all  one's  ideas  of  time  are 
changed — a  country  which  was  in  a  high  state  of  development,  whose  people 
were  in  the  highest  state  of  intellectual  culture  when  England  and  her  people 
were  savages,  when  my  German  ancestors  were  barbarians  ;  a  country  whose 
religious  teachings— the  religion  of  Buddah — were  written  2,000  years  before  the 
birth  of  Christ ;  a  country  whose  temples  and  tombs  stand  to-day,  lasting 
monuments  of  the  refinement  and  culture  of  its  people,  more  lasting  than  any 
written  history.  The  magnificent  monument  of  the  Tag  Mahal,  which  occupied 
in  its  erection  20,000  men,  ior  twenty  years,  is  one  of  the  world's  greatest  wonders. 
It  is  built  of  the  whitest  of  marble,  every  figure  and  statue  chiseled  with  the 
most  marvellous  skill,  every  spire  and  tower  crowned  with  some  wonderful 
evidence  of  genius.  The  Tag  Mahal  and  the  Pyramids  of  Egypt  will  stand  for 
ages  as  the  two  greatest  wonders  of  human  skill  and  patience  which  the  world 
has  to  show. 

We  reached  Ceylon  after  a  voyage  of  two  weeks.  The  sight  of  land  is 
always  pleasant  to  the  traveller,  who  for  days  has  seen  nothing  but  water  on 
every  side,  but  the  glimpse  of  such  a  place  as  Ceylon  is  especially  attractive. 
We  arrived  at  Colombo  on  a  very  hot  day — in  fact,  all  days  are  hot  in  Ceylon. 
The  first  impression  of  this  eastern  world  is  a  strange  one.  As  soon  as  the  ship 
was  anchored,  it  was  surrounded  by  boats  filled  with  native  men  and  boys,  the 
men  with  a  small  cloth  tied  about  their  loins,  the  boys  clothed  as  nature  clothed 
them.  It  is  astonishing  how  soon  one  becomes  accustomed  to  the  "nakedness  of 
the  land,"  and  how  very  soon  one  wishes  to  follow  their  example,  as  the  intense 
heat  makes  even  the  lightest  clothing  unbearable.  One  writer  has  said  that 
while  in  Colombo,  he  had  a  strong  desire  to  "  take  off  his  skin  and  sit  in  his 
bones."  The  population  of  Ceylon  is  nearly  3,000,000,  including  Europeans, 


Moors,  Malays,  Tamils,  Cingalese  and  others,  with  the  religions  of  Mohammed, 
Hindu,  Buddhist  and  Christian,  and  naturally  this  strange  medley  makes  a  picture 
that  is  to  be  found  no  place  else.  If  an  artist  were  to  take  all  the  shades  of 
brown,  from  vandyke  to  the  lightest  tint,  he  or  she  would  be  able  to  reproduce 
all  the  colors  of  the  skin  of  these  strange  people.  There  is  no  place  in  the  world 
where  caste  is  so  distinct  as  in  India.  The  manner  of  dressing  and  wearing  the 
hair  are  the  characteristics  of  the  different  castes.  Our  guide  wore  his  hair  in  a 
"  Grecian  "  knot,  at  the  back  of  his  head,  with  a  tortoise-shell  comb  in  front.  It 
is  difficult  to  distinguish  the  sex  of  these  people,  as  what  little  clothing  they  wear 
is  worn  in  the  same  manner  by  men  and  women.  I  asked  the  guide  why  he 
wore  his  hair  in  that  manner.  His  reply  was  :  "  I  Buddhist  ;  high  class."  We 
engaged  a  native  driver  and  native  guide,  the  guide  being  able  to  speak  a  little 
English  ;  the  driver  could  speak  nothing  but  Cingalese.  After  a  preliminary 
squabble  between  driver  and  guide,  we  started  on  our  voyage  of  discovery,  but  I 
forgot  to  mention  that  I  thought  myself  extremely  lucky  in  having  got  off  the 
ship  intact.  There  was  a  struggle  between  the  guides  and  boatmen  as  to  which 
should  take  us.  Had  the  struggle  been  between  themselves  I  should  not 
have  cared,  but  unfortunately  I  was  in  the  midst  of  it,  and  between  the 
screaming,  gesticulating  and  babel  of  many  tongues,  my  temper  was  rather  sorely 
tried.  Had  I  been  a  man  with  a  stout  umbrella  I  should  certainly  have  used  it 
over  the  heads  of  these  people.  At  last  we  started  after  agreeing  to  pay  five 
rupees  for  fourteen  miles.  We  drove  along  a  beautiful  road,  with  cocoanut  trees, 
cinnamon  trees,  and  coffee  plantations,  while  on  both  sides  of  the  carriage  there 
were  children  running  along  with  out-stretched  hands  begging  for  money.  It  is 
a  painful  sight  to  see  poverty  when  one  is  unable  to  relieve  it,  but  it  is  by  no 
means  unpleasant  to  see  the  little  Cingalese  boys  and  girls  running  after  one.  It 
is  simply  amusing.  One  cannot  bring  up  any  harrowing  scenes  of  ragged 
distress,  because  these  people  have  so  little  clothing  to  become  ragged,  and  their 
little  black  faces  are  as  happy  and  radiant  as  the  sun.  There  is  none  of  the 
plaintive  whine  which  one  hears  from  beggars  elsewhere,  but  a  cheery  voice 
bubbling  with  laughter.  They  look  up  with  eyes  twinkling  with  fun.  "  Good 
lady,  I  poor  boy  " — -with  a  graceful  twitch  of  the  head.  "  Master,  I  very  poor," 
with  a  most  winning  smile.  If  all  beggars  would  follow  their  example,  I  am  sure 
their  business  would  increase,  as  it  requires  a  very  hard  heart  to  resist  the  happy 
laugh  and  graceful  Cingalese.  We  passed  some  beautiful  bungalows  and  grounds, 
occupied  by  Europeans.  One — -the  first  of  all — -is  occupied  by  a  wealthy  native, 
who  sent  his  children  to  England  to  be  educated. 


We  called  at  the  Buddhist  temple,  where  we  saw  the  figure  of  Buddah,  and 
the  god  of  Vishnu.  The  religion  of  Buddah  is  said  to  be  Christianity  without 
Christ  ;  nothing  can  be  more  pure  than  the  Buddhist  precepts.  The  Hindoo 
temple  is  also  within  our  reach.  We  could  have  visited  this  by  taking  off  our 
shoes  on  entering,  but  as  the  least  exerfion  becomes  oppressive  in  this  climate, 
we  refuse  to  exert  ourselves,  even  to  see  a  Hindoo  idol.  All  my  readers  have 
seen  in  circuses  the  curious  Hindoo  cattle,  which  I  never  expected  to  see  out- 
side a  circus  tent,  but  in  Ceylon  they  are  harnessed  to  a  cart,  and  are  made  to 
draw  heavy  burdens.  I  saw  hundreds  of  them  thus  harnessed  and  at  work. 
Nothing  can  exceed  the  novelty  of  a  street  scene  in  Colombo.  In  one  carriage 
we  see  a  Cingalese  gentleman  of  wealth  and  position,  dressed  in  immaculate 
white,  with  a  native  servant  on  the  box,  and  another  servant  trotting  by  the 
carriage.  Then  a  pair  of  Hindoo  cattle  harnessed  to  a  covered  wagon,  while 
inside,  perhaps,  are  four  or  five  little  naked  children,  with  two  or  three  grown  people 
wearing  bright  turbans  and  brilliant  colored  skirts.  The  people  who  wear  this 
turban  are  the  most  picturesque  of  all  the  motley  crowd.  The  artistic  manner  of 
wearing  it,  the  picturesque  and  brilliant  colors,  form  a  picture  long  to  be 
remembered.  Again,  among  the  street  conveyances  are  the  jinrickshas  drawn  by 
one  of  the  natives.  It  is  a  two-wheeled  carriage  made  to  hold  one  person, 
cushioned  nicely,  and  the  native  who  draws  you  is  between  two  shafts.  I  wished 
to  try  this  novel  method  of  travelling,  and  having  heard  of  it,  was  prejudiced 
against  making  a  horse  of  a  human  being,  but  the  feeling  leaves  one  as  soon  as 
one  steps  into  the  little  carriage.     It  all  seems  part  and  parcel  of  the  strange  scene. 

There  was  one  thing  which  afforded  me  much  pleasure  during  my  stay  in 
Colombo,  a  pleasure  not  unmixed  with  pain.  I  called  upon  Araba  Pasha,  who, 
as  most  of  my  readers  know,  was  sent  to  Ceylon  a  prisoner  by  the  British 
Government,  for  endeavoring  to  free  Egypt  from  British  rule.  His  plans  proved 
futile,  and  the  result  of  his  failure  was  exile  and  imprisonment  in  a  strange  land. 
I  found  him  in  a  handsome  bungalow,  where  he  is  free  to  go  in  and  out  as  he 
chooses,  with  native  servants  and  every  comfort,  but  his  gilded  cage  is  none  the 
less  a  prison.  He  is  a  magnificent  looking  man,  with  a  commanding  presence, 
and  dignified  bearing.  His  face  is  very  expressive,  and  one  can  imagine  that  he 
would  be  easily  aroused  to  enthusiasm,  but  he  has  no  appearance  of  a  fanatic,  or 
visionary.  He  received  me  kindly,  and  has  a  very  good  knowledge  of  the 
English  language  ;  therefore  the  visit  was  an  interesting  one  to  me.  After  a 
little  time  I  arose  and  he  bowed  me  out  with  a  courtly,  dignified  manner,  leaving 
the  impression  upon  my  mind  that  I  had  left  the  presence  of  an  "  uncrowned  king." 


One  can  find  many  interesting  curiosities  in  Colombo,  and  were  it  not  for 
the  importunities  of  the  natives,  it  would  be  pleasant  visiting  these  Oriental 
bazars,  but  it  is  most  annoying  to  have  these  people  screaming  in  one's  ears 
continually.  They  will  follow  one  around  for  an  hour,  gesticulating  and  screaming 
broken  English,  and  I  can  assure  my  readers  that  no  American  "  Cheap  Jack  " 
can  compare  with  them  for  swindle  and  humbug.  There  are  some  beautiful 
stones  to  be  found  in  Ceylon — the  "cat's  eye,"  and  numerous  handsome  gems. 
The  natives  always  make  considerable  money  from  the  passengers  on  board  the 
ships,  but  many  times  the  gems  which  the  travellers  buy  are  made  in  Birmingham 
for  about  three  pence  each,  and  sold  to  the  unwary  traveller  for  three  pounds. 
Then  again  the  purchaser  may  secure  a  genuine  "cat's  eye"  for  three  pounds  and 
sell  it  in  London  for  twenty,  as  one  of  my  fellow-passengers  did  a  few  months 
ago.  The  most  curious  thing  to  me  was  the  Cingalese  newspaper,  which  I 
secured  as  a  souvenir.  The  early  history  of  Ceylon  is  obscure,  but  Cingalese 
kings  are  recorded  as  having  reigned  543  B.  C.  Ceylon  is  noted  for  its 
elephants  ;  many  of  them  are  exported  annually  to  Europe.  There  are  a  great 
number  of  poisonous  snakes,  among  them  the  dreaded  cobra.  One  of  the  first 
questions  which  I  asked  the  guide  was  if  he  ever  saw  any  snakes,  but  I  did  not 
imagine  that  they  were  ever  seen  in  the  city  ;  yet  some  of  the  ship's  passengers, 
while  driving  to  the  museum,  saw  a  large  one  basking  in  the  sun,  directly  in  the 

One  can  see  in  the  distance  the  celebrated  mountain  called  Adam's  Peak. 
This  is  the  sacred  mountain,  where  it  is  said  the  foot-print  of  Buddah  is  seen  at 
the  very  summit.  The  legend  is  that  Buddah  stepped  from  this  mountain  over 
to  India,  leaving  this  foot-print  as  he  returned  to  the  land  of  his  birth.  The 
Buddhists  have  covered  this  place  over  with  a  jeweled  covering,  which  they  raise 
for  the  traveller  to  see  the  indentation.  The  foot  mark  is  six  feet  in  length. 
A  man  can  lie  down  comfortably  in  it.  If  Buddah  had  a  foot  six  feet  in  length, 
one  naturally  concludes  that  he  must  have  been  a  giant.  The  teachings  of  these 
people  are  simple  and  pure,  but,  like  all  religions,  superstitions  have  crept  in,  and 
this  foot-mark  reverence  is  really  no  more  absurd  than  many  of  our  beliefs. 

If  one  requires  washing  done  in  Ceylon  or  India,  it  will  be  taken  and 
returned  in  a  few  hours,  but  it  is  not  wise  to  give  fine  muslins,  or,  as  ladies  say, 
"  fine  things,"  as  the  method  of  washing  is  rather  peculiar.  It  consists  of 
pounding  the  clothes  with  a  club,  or  rubbing  them  on  a  stone,  and  all  washing  is 
done  in  cold  water,  in  the  little  lakes,  or  lagoons. 

There  are  excellent  hotels  in  Colombo — cool  and  airy.     While  taking  one's 


meals  there  are  two  native  servants  engaged  in  swinging  the  punkahs  overhead ; 
by  this  means  the  air  is  always  kept  cool.  The  punkahs  are  in  all  the  bungalows 
of  the  wealthy  people,  and  as  servants  can  be  had  for  a  trifling  sum,  one  can  have 
any  amount  of  attendance. 

As  the  ship  steamed  from  the  harbor  the  scene  was  most  beautiful  and  long 
to  be  remembered.  The  sacred  mountain  of  Buddah  was  dimly  outlined  in  the 
distance,  the  beautiful  palms  and  cinnamon  trees  formed  a  charming  middle- 
ground,  while  in  the  foreground,  the  natives,  with  their  picturesque  turbans  and 
graceful  figures,  gave  the  finishing  touch  to  this  exquisite  scene.  The  ship 
slowly  steamed  from  the  harbor,  the  people  grew  more  indistinct,  the  palm  trees 
faded  from  sight,  until  at  last  there  was  only  the  sacred  mountain,  growing  more 
misty,  until  it  faded  from  sight,  and  the  Eastern  world  and  all  its  mysteries 
were  hidden  ;  the  veil  had  fallen,  hiding  from  Western  eyes  its  glories  and 


Ij^^HE  rest  at  Ceylon  seemed  only  to  increase  our  discomfort.  After 
I  Y  leaving  Ceylon  we  were  in  the  Arabian  Sea,  with  another  long  stretch 
^  of  water  before  us,  and  the  heat  increasing  daily.  The  passengers  were 
trying  to  dispel  the  tedium  by  a  dance  on  deck,  and  the  usual  games,  but  dancing 
is  not  a  success  when  one's  blood  seems  boiling  with  heat.  About  six  days  out 
from  Ceylon  we  sight  the  Island  of  Sokotra,  and  very  beautiful  it  looks.  It  is 
about  eighty  miles  long  and  twenty  wide.  There  are  about  5,000  blacks  on  it, 
and  one  can  but  wonder  how  they  live,  as  the  heat  must  be  stifling.  The  island 
is  mountainous,  and  soft,  fleecy  clouds  are  hanging  over  the  cliffs,  and  at  times 
cover  the  tips,  softening  the  rough  outlines. 

Our  next  stopping  place  is  Aden,  after  being  at  sea  three  weeks,  but  the 
place  is  so  uninviting  that  none  of  the  passengers  feel  inclined  to  visit  it.  It 
presents  a  scene  of  the  utmost  desolation.  It  is,  as  most  of  my  readers  know,  in 
Arabia,  is  a  garrison  fortress  and  camp  town,  and  boasts  of  a  population  of 
40,000.  When  I  think  of  the  many  beautiful  places  there  are  on  this  earth,  I  can 
not  help  wondering  why  people  live  in  this  nasty,  hot,  dusty  hole.  Life  is  simply 
a  slow  baking  process  ;  in  fact,  the  heat  is  so  intense  that  the  hair  of  the  Arabs 
is  bleached  to  a  yellow  hue.  Soon  after  the  ship  was  anchored  it  was  surrounded 
by  a  crowd  of  Arabs,  who  offered  to  do  anything  for  money  ;  the  little  boys 
diving  for  coins,  and  two  of  them  jumped  from  the  taffrail  of  the  ship  into  the 
water.  One  tiny  boy,  whom  I  never  expected  to  see  again  after  such  a  leap, 
came  up  smiling  a  few  rods  off".  They  offered  for  sale  many  pretty  shells,  and 
skins  of  wild  animals,  and  among  other  things  some  very  handsome  ostrich 
feathers,  which  are  sold  for  a  few  pennies.  I  thought  of  my  lady  friends,  who 
would  revel  in  ostrich  feathers,  if  by  chance  they  should  ever  visit  Aden  ;  but  for 
myself,  I  have  seen  all  I  require  of  "  Araby,  the  blest  " — quite  sufficient  to  satisfy 
me  for  the  remainder  of  my  days. 

On  the  afternoon  of  the  same  day  we  passed  "the  fortress  island  of  Perim," 
the  key  to  the  Red  Sea.  While  looking  at  this  island  I  am  reminded  of  the  old 
adage  that  "  everything  is  fair  in  love  and  war."  At  one  time  a  French  man-of- 
war  arrived  at  Aden,  and  the  English  garrison  entertained  the  commander  and 
officers.  While  dining,  the  French  commander  took  a  little  too  much  wine,  and, 
as  usual  in  such  cases,  forgot  his  reticence,  and  informed  the  English  officers  that 



his  intentions  were  to  take  possession  of  the  Island  of  Perim  in  the  name  of 
France.  His  surprise  may  be  imagined,  for  upon  arriving  at  the  island  next 
morning  he  saw  the  English  flag  floating  in  the  breeze,  advantage  having  been 
taken  of  the  information  to  dispatch  a  gun-boat  in  the  night  and  plant  the  English 


ND  the  Lord  said  unto  Moses,  stretch  out  thine  hand  over  the  sea, 
t^  that  the  waters  may  come  again  upon  the  Egyptians,  upon  their 
chariots,  and  upon  their  horsemen. 

"  And  Moses  stretched  forth  his  hand  over  the  sea,  and  the  sea  returned  to 
his  strength  when  the  morning  appeared,  and  the  Egyptians  fled  against  it,  and 
the  Lord  overthrew  the  Egyptians  in  the  midst  of  the  sea. 

"  But  the  children  of  Israel  walked  upon  dry  land  in  the  midst  of  the  sea  ; 
and  the  waters  were  a  wall  unto  them  on  their  right  hand  and  on  their  left. 

"  Pharaoh's  chariots  and  his  host  hath  he  cast  into  the  sea ;  his  chosen 
captains  also  are  drowned  in  the  Red  Sea." 

Soon  after  passing  Perim  we  entered  "Hell's  Gate,"  or  the  "Gates  of 
Desolation."  Nothing  could  be  more  appropriate  than  this  name  to  the  entrance 
of  the  Red  Sea.  On  our  right  was  the  Arabian  shore,  on  our  left  the  African 
desert,  both  countries  arid  and  desolate,  but  the  culminating  point  of  misery  is 
reached  in  this  body  of  water.  It  is  filled  with  wrecks  of  vessels  which  have 
struck  on  its  treacherous  shoals  ;  its  coral  reefs  are  the  resting  place  for  the  bones 
of  many  passengers  who  have  succumbed  to  the  fearful  heat.  During  the  last 
voyage  of  the  "  Orizaba  " — the  ship  in  which  I  made  my  journey — there  were 
eleven  deaths  in  four  days  from  "heat  apoplexy."  The  months  of  June,  July 
and  August  are  the  most  dangerous  on  the  Red  Sea,  and  should  be  avoided  by 
travellers,  if  possible.  During  my  passage  through  there  was  a  slight  breeze,  for 
which  we  were  thankful,  but  even  with  that  boon  the  heat  is  almost  unbearable. 

We  passed  over  the  spot  where  it  is  said  Pharaoh  and  his  \;hariots  were 
swallowed  in  the  sea ;  passed  Mount  Sinai  on  our  right,  which  is  barely  visible — 
merely  a  faint  outline.  Suez  is  the  entrance  of  the  canal  at  one  end  and  Port 
Said  the  other.  The  Suez  Canal,  which  cost  $90,000,000,  required  no  engineer- 
ing skill,  as  it  was  simply  a  question  of  digging  out  the  sand,  and  the  labor  is 
still  going  on.  They  are  constantly  dredging  and  working,  as  the  wash  of  the 
ships  which  pass  through  causes  the  sand  to  loosen  from  the  embankments.  It 
is  an  old  saying  that  "There  is  nothing  new  under  the  sun."  Even  this  canal, 
the  boast  of  modern  times,  is  not  new,  for  it  is  known  to  have  been  in  existence 
in  the  time  of  the  Pharaohs,  but  the  sands  from  the  desert  drifted  and  filled  up 
the  old  one,  and  it  remained  for  modern   hands  and  commercial   enterprise  to 



re-open  this  famous  waterway.  The  ships  move  very  slowly  through  the  canal, 
therefore  the  traveller  has  an  opportunity  of  seeing  both  sides,  and  the  sight  is  a 
strange  one.  As  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  for  miles  and  miles,  the  sandy  desert 
stretches,  with  no  trace  of  vegetation  or  even  a  green  shrub.  There  were  a 
number  of  Arabs  working  with  camels  when  I  passed  through.  They  were 
widening  the  canal  in  places,  and  the  boxes  which  held  the  sand  were  strapped  on 
the  backs  of  the  camels,  the  animals  kneeling  down  to  receive  their  burden. 
These  Arabs  are  so  miserably  poor  that  anything  is  acceptable  to  them.  They 
will  run  along  the  bank  of  the  canal,  following  the  ship  for  pennies  thrown  to 
them,  and  swim  out  into  the  water  for  pieces  of  bread  tossed  to  them  from  the 
shiix  I  think  these  dusky  Arabs  must  have  been  made  of  sand,  have  eaten  sand, 
and,  after  death,  returned  to  sand.  A  Syrian  woman  came  down  to  a  well, 
carrying  a  pitcher  upon  her  head — one  of  those  quaint  pitchers  that  we  see  in 
Eastern  pictures,  a  veritable  Rebecca  at  the  well — and  as  nothing  changes  in  the 
East;  these  women  and  their  descendants  will  continue  to  carry  water  in  the  same 
way,  in  the  same  quaint  vessels,  for  ages  to  come. 

Port  Said  was  our  next  stopping  place,  and  has  the  reputation  of  being  the 
"wickedest  place  on  earth,"  and  I  think  the  inhabitants  keep  up  their  unenviable 
reputation  to  the  best,  or  worst,  of  their  ability.  There  is  a  population  of  about 
12,000,  from  all  parts  of  the  world — the  refuse,  scum,  and  dregs  of  the  earth. 
It  was  Sunday  when  we  arrived  there,  but  Port  Said  recognizes  no  Sunday  ;  the 
shops  were  all  open,  the  markets  doing  a  thriving  trade,  and  a  market  scene  in 
this  place  is  a  strange  sight,  with  stranger  sounds,  with  its  babel  of  many  tongues. 
Here  I  saw  for  the  first  time  the  veiled  Egyptian  women — a  sight  which  filled 
me  with  pity,  and  a  longing  to  tear  the  absurd  thing  from  their  faces.  The  veil 
is  fastened  just  below  the  eyes,  and  that  is  the  only  part  of  the  face  which  is 
visible.  I  could  not  help  thinking  that  they  were  stifling  under  that  heavy  veil, 
for  it  is  not  the  flimsy  thing  which  ladies  wear  in  other  lands,  but  is  thick,  so  as  to 
conceal  the  face  entirely.  Perhaps  my  pity  was  uncalled  for,  as  I  do  not  think  it 
more  absurd  than  many  of  the  fashionable  garments  worn  by  the  devotees  of 
fashion  elsewhere.  One  of  the  novelties  of  Port  Said  is  a  ride  on  a  donkey, 
and  I  quickly  availed  myself  of  the  novel  mode  of  travelling  ;  but  I  soon  found 
that  the  donkey  and  I  were  not  of  one  mind — that  we  did  not  fully  understand 
each  other.  When  I  wished  to  turn  to  the  right,  he  immediately  showed  a  strong 
inclination  to  go  to  the  left  ;  he  was  also  given  to  sudden  stoppages,  a  habit  which 
nearly  sent  me  over  his  head  several  times.  The  saddles  used  on  these  animals 
have  no  pommels,  but  the  ride  is  very  enjoyable — till  you  fall  off 


I  visited  the  Mohammedan  Mosque,  but  was  not  allowed  to  enter  without 
first  removing  my  shoes,  as  no  person  is  allowed  to  step  inside  a  mosque  with 
shoes  on.  I  of  course  removed  mine,  and  entered,  and  was  rewarded  by  seeing 
a  devotee  at  his  devotions.  Thousands  of  believers  in  the  Mohammedan  faith 
pass  through  Port  Said  yearly  on  their  pilgrimage  to  Mecca,  the  birth-place  of 

Among  the  customs  of  the  unchanging  East  is  the  one  of  the  money  changers, 
who  sit  outside  their  doors  on  the  pavement,  as  they  have  done  since  the  time  of 
Solomon.  It  is  only  twelve  hours'  ride  from  Port  Said  to  Jerusalem.  I  have 
seen,  dimly  outlined  against  the  horizon.  Mount  Sinai  and  Mount  Horeb,  while 
here,  within  easy  distance,  lie  Jerusalem,  the  River  Jordan  and  peerless  Damascus. 

After  leavmg  Port  Said  there  was  nothing  more  of  interest  till  we  passed 
through  the  beautiful  Straits  of  Messina.  Then,  farther  on,  we  passed  the 
Volcano  of  Stromboli,  a  huge  rock  rising  from  the  sea  ;  then,  in  a  short  time,  into 
the  beautiful  Bay  of  Naples. 


^\  THINK  no  place  in  the  world  appeals  so  strongly  to  the  heart  and  mind 
/|  of  the  artist  as  Naples.  At  every  turn  the  eye  is  delighted  by  some 
^  new  beauty  and  quaint  scene.  It  has  been  said  that  the  Neapolitans  are 
dirty.  It  is  true  they  are  dirty,  but  it  is  picturesque  dirt.  No  where  else  in 
the  world  are  rags  worn  with  such  grace,  for  even  the  rags  are  beautifully  colored. 
One  sees  the  richest  hues  in  Naples — the  sea,  the  sky,  the  tint  of  the  buildings 
mellowed  by  time,  the  picturesque  dress  of  the  people,  all  combine  to  make  an 
exquisite  picture,  one  that  once  seen  can  never  be  forgotten.  Naples  has  a 
population  of  600,000,  and  one  cannot  help  wondering  how  they  live,  as  they 
seem  to  do  nothing  but  group  in  numbers,  and  make  pictures  of  themselves. 
The  streets  are  the  most  wonderful  to  be  seen  any  place  in  the  world.  I  do  not 
mean  that  the  buildings  are  the  most  beautiful,  but  I  mean  to  say  that  in  no  other 
place  are  such  beautiful  sights  to  be  seen. 

We  were  a  party  of  four  who  started  on  a  tour  of  Italy,  and  the  first  thing 
we  did  was  to  secure  a  guide,  which  we  did  without  any  trouble ;  and  there  is  not 
the  least  difficulty  in  getting  along  if  one  will  only  beware  of  extras,  the  great 
trouble  with  all  continental  hotels.  I  will  only  mention  a  few  of  the  most 
interesting  places  which  I  visited  in  Naples.  Among  the  palaces  was  one  of 
especial  interest,  the  palace  of  Princess  Colonna,  the  daughter  of  Mr.  Mackay,  of 
California,  who  repaired  the  fortunes  of  the  impecunious  prince  of  the  house  of 
Colonna,  and  secured  a  title  for  herself.  I  saw  the  palace  which  Araba  Pasha 
occupied  after  his  flight  from  Egypt  into  Naples,  before  the  grand  finale  which 
made  him  a  prisoner  at  Ceylon.  He  caused  some  disturbance  in  Egypt  and 
sought  safety  in  flight,  choosing  Italy  as  the  place  of  refuge  ;  then  returned  again 
to  Egypt  to  renew  hostilities,  which  all  my  readers  are  acquainted  with,  and  will 
end  his  days  probably  in  exile.  I  drove  through  the  Grotto  of  Posilipo,  cut  by 
the  old  Romans  nearly  2,000  years  ago.  I  visited  the  Queen's  Palace,  where 
there  are  many  beautiful  paintings  ;  one  entire  room  is  devoted  to  the  portraits  of  the 
Bourbon  family.  There  are  numerous  beautiful  tables  of  antique  marble,  in  one 
room  a  large  table  from  the  ruins  of  Pompeii,  many  cabinets  of  curiosities, 
handsome  statues  and  antique  marble  vases.  In  one  room  I  saw  the  cradle  of 
the  young  prince,  with  satin  linings  and  inlaid  with  precious  stones,  a  magnifi- 
cent resting  place  for  the  young  prince  ;  but  his  pathway  through  life  may  be  none 



the  smoother,  for  in  an  unsettled  country  like  Italy  the  adage,  "  uneasy  lies  the  head 
which  wears  a  crown,"  is  very  applicable.  There  is  one  room  which  interested 
me  very  much,  that  is  the  "porcelain"  room.  The  whole  wall  is  covered  with 
porcelain  figures  in  relief.  There  are  trees,  flowers,  fruits,  fans,  and  monkeys 
all  mingled  together  in  the  strangest  manner.  The  most  beautiful  room  is  the 
ball-room.  The  walls  are  handsomely  frescoed,  the  colors  blending  harmoniously. 
There  are  magnificent  pier  glasses,  and  superb  chandeliers.  I  could  easily 
conjure  a  brilliant  scene,  with  the  blaze  of  many  lights,  beautiful  frescoes,  the 
mirrors  reflecting  the  forms  and  features  of  the  lovely  Italian  women.  I  drove  along 
the  fashionable  drive,  where  I  saw  elegant  carriages  and  liveried  servants,  both 
horses  and  equipments  rivalling  anything  of  the  kind  seen  either  in  New  York 
or  Paris.  The  drive  in  the  evening  was  a  delightful  one,  with  the  beautiful  Bay 
of  Naples  on  one  side,  the  picturesque  city  on  the  other.  The  moon  hung  like  a 
silver  disk  in  the  sky,  and  repeated  itself  in  the  blue  water,  while  the  lurid  light 
from  Vesuvius  shone  through  beneath  the  black  cloud  which  hung  like  a  pall  over 
it — the  mountain  of  molten  lava  which  has  overflowed  and  buried  two  cities, 
Herculaneum  and  Pompeii. 


The  drive  from  Naples  to  Pompeii  occupies  about  two  hours.  We  engaged 
a  driver  and  guide,  starting  early  in  the  morning.  During  the  whole  way  we 
have  Vesuvius  in  sight,  at  times  belching  forth  columns  of  smoke,  as  if  to  prepare 
us  for  the  ruin  it  has  wrought,  and  to  remind  the  people  that  what  it  has  pre- 
viously done  it  may  do  again,  that  the  beautiful  city  of  Naples  may  at  any  time 
be  covered  with  ashes  and  lava.  To  give  the  people  security,  and  for  the 
advancement  of  meteorological  investigation,  they  have  built  an  observatory  at 
the  summit  of  the  mountain,  near  the  crater.  By  this  means  they  are  able  to 
note  every  tremor  of  the  mighty  mountain,  to  make  known  previously  any 
unusual  convulsion.  About  ten  years  ago  the  needles  indicated  an  eruption. 
The  people  were  warned  that  it  would  occur,  but  were  also  told  that  nothing 
serious  would  happen  to  Naples.  The  eruption  occurred,  as  was  foretold,  but  no 
one  could  fortell  the  horror  of  the  people,  the  screams  of  the  frightened  women, 
the  panic-stricken  men,  the  wild  confusion.  People  rushed  to  the  sea  for  safety, 
but  fortunately  Naples  and  her  people  escaped  uninjured,  while  an  island  in  the 
bay,  about  twenty  miles  distint,  was  destroyed.  We  drove  by  handsome 
palaces  and   soldiers'   barracks,   the  palaces  dirty  but   picturesque,    the    people 


dirtier  and  more  picturesque,  with  the  blending  of  Greek  and  Oriental.  There 
is  a  Httle  hotel  just  at  the  gates  of  Pompeii,  where  we  took  our  luncheon,  under 
the  shadow  of  Vesuvius  ;  then  entered  the  silent  city  of  the  dead,  and  walked 
along  streets  that  were  worn  by  wheels  of  the  chariots  which  were  driven  through 
Pompeii  nearly  two  thousand  years  ago.  As  the  destruction  of  Pompeii  took 
place  nearly  two  thousand  years  ago,  and  the  stones  in  the  streets  were  worn  into 
ruts  on  both  sides  by  the  chariot  wheels,  what  then  must  have  been  the  age  of 
the  city  at  the  time  of  its  destruction  ?  I  stood  near  a  marble  fountain  where 
the  marble  had  been  worn  into  a  hollow  by  hands  resting  upon  its  side.  How 
many  generations  must  have  passed,  and  how  many  hands  rested  upon  this 
fountain  before  the  imprint  was  made  upon  solid  marble  }  In  this  same  fountain 
there  was  a  marble  head  from  the  mouth  of  which  the  water  ran.  One  side  of 
the  marble  head  is  worn  down  almost  flat  by  the  people  putting  their  mouths 
down  to  drink  from  the  fountain  and  pressing  the  face  against  the  marble.  Any-  _ 
one  can  see  at  a  glance  the  positions  the  people  have  taken  while  drinking,  the 
hand  resting  on  the  marble,  and  the  face  pressed  against  the  side.  How  many 
faces,  young  and  old — how  many  lips,  fresh  and  withered — have  pressed  against 
the  marble  to  make  those  impressions  ?  Traces  of  this  buried  city  were 
discovered  first  in  1689,  but  excavations  were  not  commenced  till  1721.  Since 
then  the  work  has  continued,  and  valuable  discoveries  are  being  made  con- 
stantly. There  are  miles  of  these  streets  and  houses  uncovered,  the  contents  of 
the  houses  showing  the  tastes  and  customs  of  the  people,  and  we  who  boast  of 
modern  improvements  and  Inventions,  are  making  use  of  the  same  inventions  to- 
day that  were  used  by  the  ancients.  We  boast  of  our  refinement  and  luxuries, 
but  the  ancients  were  more  luxurious  than  we  of  the  nineteenth  century.  One 
has  only  to  walk  through  the  streets  of  Pompeii  to  become  convinced  of  the 
luxurious  tastes  of  the  ancients.  There  are  magnificent  marble  columns, 
beautiful  frescoes,  handsome  tiles  and  bronzes.  Every  house  had  its  beautiful 
mosaic  floor,  every  piece  worked  with  skill  and  artistic  taste.  Elegant  marble 
tables,  marble  columns,  handsome  facades,  all  show  elegance  of  taste  and  refine- 
ment. The  authorities  have  preserved  everything  which  has  been  found  during 
the  excavations.  Some  are  in  a  building  at  Pompeii,  while  the  greater  number 
are  in  the  museum  at  Naples.  Everything  in  a  Roman  house  displayed  artistic 
taste.  Among  the  many  things  which  I  saw  was  a  splendid  vase  with  four 
handles,  decorated  with  female  busts  and  inlaid  with  silver ;  table  with  bronze, 
inlaid  with  silver,  bronze  baskets,  etc.  I  only  mention  this  one  vase  as  being 
especially  beautiful,  but  there  is  an  endless  variety  of  them.     Any  one  of  them,  in 


our  day,  would  be  considered  a  work  of  art.  Beautiful  baths  in  every  house- 
hold ;  ornaments  for  doors  and  furniture  ;  numerous  candelabra  for  lamps  ;  num- 
bers of  mathematical  instruments  (one  is  exactly  like  the  instrument  used  by 
modern  sculptors);  doctors'  instruments  ;  one  large  gold  lamp.  Among  the  orna- 
ments I  saw  numbers  of  gold  rings,  one  with  the  bone  of  the  finger,  and  the  ring 
on  it,  just  as  it  was  found,  and  many  rings  set  with  fine  stones  ;  one  magnificent 
necklace  with  eight  large  pearls  and  nine  emeralds,  but  I  will  not  particularize 
these  now  ;  ear-rings,  rings,  chains,  necklets  innumerable,  and  stranger  than  all,  a 
bottle  of  rouge,  the  color  as  fresh  as  though  it  were  put  in  the  bottle  yesterday. 

The  tickets  for  theatres  were  peculiar — ivory  checks,  and  pigeons  made  out 
of  terra-cotta.  These  were  for  the  upper  row  of  seats,  still  called  in  Italy  the 
"  pigeon  loft."  Among  the  checks  and  pigeons  were  found  skulls  and  heads  carved 
out  of  ivory,  and  their  use  is  unknown.  I  have  a  theory — and  if  I  am  wrong  I  hope 
my  readers  will  correct  me — that  these  skulls  or  death  heads  represented  xki^  free 
tickets  or  dead-heads,  as  we  call  them  in  our  time.  I  hope  I  am  right,  as  it  would 
afford  me  much  pleasure  to  have  made  even  this  slight  discovery  in  connection 
with  so  wonderful  a  place. 

I  saw  the  plaster  casts  of  some  of  the  bodies  found,  some  of  them  showing  that 
their  suffering  had  been  very  great ;  some  had  fallen  smothered  by  the  fumes  of 
gas,  while  in  the  act  of  running  away,  others  had  tried  to  escape  by  the  windows 
and  were  burned  by  the  hot  ashes.  In  one  place  they  came  upon  a  skeleton  ;  and 
it  has  been  left  just  as  it  was  found.  They  have  put  up  a  gate  and  locked  it 
securely,  and  one  can  look  through  and  see  the  skeleton  lying  in  its  bed  of  lava. 
I  shall  carry  in  my  mind  for  many  a  day  this  ghastly  remembrance  of  Pompeii.  I 
wandered  away  from  my  friends  while  looking  through  Pompeii ;  the  guide  had 
left  me.  The  room  I  was  in  must  have  been  occupied  by  people  of  wealth.  The 
paintings  on  the  walls  were  as  fresh  as  though  but  recently  painted.  There  was 
a  fountain  with  mosaics  on  every  side,  and  here  again  were  the  marks  of  many 
hands.  There  was  not  a  sound  to  be  heard,  and  I  never  felt  so  utterly  alone  as 
while  standing  in  this  silent  room  by  the  fountain  which  had  so  suddenly  ceased 
its  play.  I  stood  there  as  in  a  dream  and  tried  to  people  this  room,  but  the  wind 
arose  while  I  stood,  and  began  to  moan  and  sigh  through  the  marble  columns, 
like  the  wail  of  a  lost  soul,  as  if  in  protest  at  the  intrusion.  If  these  silent 
streets  could  only  speak,  would  they  not  tell  of  restless  spirits  and  noiseless  feet 
in  this  city  of  the  dead. 


I  BADE  adieu  to  beautiful  Naples  and  started  on  my  way  to  Rome,  a  journey 
which  occupied  about  six  hours.  Nothing  can  be  more  unlike  than  these  two 
cities,  as  nothing  can  be  more  unromantic  and  unpoetical  than  modern  Rome. 
But  it  is  not  of  modern  Rome  that  1  am  writing,  but  of  ancient  Rome.  Books 
upon  books  have  been  written  about  its  wonderful  ruins,  and  people  will  continue 
to  write,  and  still  the  subject  will  not  be  exhausted,  as  it  is  simply  inexhaustible. 
It  is  interesting  alike  to  the  historian,  the  artist,  the  archaeologist  and  the  ordinary 
traveller.  The  first  thing  necessary  was  to  secure  a  guide,  and  we  were  fortunate 
in  our  choice  of  "  Guiseppe  Rulli."  He  had  been  studying  the  antiquities  of  Rome 
in  the  Roman  University  for  three  years,  and  each  year  has  taken  the  prize  for  his 
superior  knowledge  of  the  subject.  The  first  thing  which  my  eye  rested  upon 
was  a  column  erected  in  Egypt  2,000  years  before  the  birth  of  our  Saviour,  and 
brought  to  Rome  before  the  Christian  era.  I  wandered  through  the  ruins  of  the 
palace  of  the  mighty  Ceesars  ;  stopped  for  a  time  before  the  church  of  Andrea 
della  Valle,  built  over  the  spot  where  the  Senate  met,  where  Julius  Caesar  fell, 
when  there  was  "none  so  poor  as  to  do  him  reverence,"  near  the  statue  of  Pompey, 
which  "  all  the  while  ran  blood  ; "  passed  under  the  arch  erected  by  Augustus 
Caisar  in  honor  of  his  sister.  Octavia.  This  was  destroyed  by  a  fire,  and  was 
restored  by  Septimus  Severus  and  Caracalla  in  203.  I  crossed  the  Tiber  and 
saw  the  ruins  of  the  first  bridge  built  over  that  river,  553  years  before  our  Saviour's 
birth,  the  bridge  which  Horatius  so  gallantly  defended  ;  passed  under  the  "Area 
di  Tito,"  erected  to  Titus,  the  son  of  Vespasian,  for  the  conquest  of  Jerusalem  ; 
it  was  through  this  arch  that  he  bore  the  golden  candlestick  taken  from  the 
temple  at  Jerusalem.  The  tower  of  the  golden  house  of  Nero,  upon  which  it  is 
said  he  stood  and  fiddled  while  Rome  was  burning,  still  stands  grey  and  gloomy, 
I  drove  along  the  celebrated  Appian  Way,  which  was  constructed  by  Appius 
Claudius  Caecus,  312  years  before  the  birth  of  our  Saviour,  many  of  the  stones  of 
the  ancient  road  way  still  lying  there  ;  passed  the  small  church  where  it  is  said 
St.  Peter  met  Christ.  I  visited  the  "  Abbadia  delle  Tre  Fontane,"  or  Three 
Fountains,  which  derives  its  name  from  the  legend  that  on  this  spot  St.  Paul  was 
beheaded,  and  after  the  head  was  severed  from  the  body  it  made  three  leaps,  and 
from  each  of  these  three  spots  a  fountain  started.  Just  as  I  was  approaching 
these  fountains  I  had  the  pleasure  of  meeting  Archbishop  Fabre,  of  Montreal, 



who  was  at  Rome  on  a  visit  to  his  Holiness  the  Pope.  Before  leaving,  he  told 
me  of  the  celebrated  liqueur  which  was  originated  by  a  French  Trappist  from 
Canada.  This  monk  made  the  liqueur  from  the  eucalyptus  trees  which  were 
brought  from  Australia  to  Rome  in  order  to  purify  the  air  of  the  Campagna.  I 
drank  some  of  this  liqueur — drank  to  the  memory  of  the  dead  monk,  one  of  my 
own  countrymen. 

The  next  place  of  interest  was  the  Catacombs.  There  were  a  number  of 
people  visiting  this  place  at  the  same  time.  We  were  each  obliged  to  carry  a 
lighted  taper,  and  the  scene  was  a  weird  one  as  we  descended  into  the  earth,  into 
darkness  that  could  almost  be  felt.  These  subterranean  passages  were  used  as 
burial  places  by  the  early  Christians  and  also  as  places  of  refuge  from  the  Roman 
pagans.  Our  way  was  through  narrow,  dark  passages,  and  on  either  side  there 
are  excavations  where  the  bodies  of  the  Christian  martyrs  have  lain,  and  as  we 
walked  slowly  through,  our  lights  seemed  only  to  increase  the  darkness,  and  to 
make  it  still  more  ghastly;  at  times  we  caught  a  glimpse  of  the  bones  mouldering 
and  crumbling — bones  that  had  lain  there  for  centuries,  I  was  wishing  myself 
safely  out  when  I  heard  a  lady  exclaim,  "  Such  a  horrid  place  !  Do  let  us  get  out." 
I  made  some  remark  to  her  and  her  reply  was,  "  I  am  a  patriotic  American  and 
my  home  is  in  Ohio."  There  is  no  place  secure  from  the  much-travelled 
American,  from  the  top  of  the  Pyramid  of  Cheops  to  the  interior  of  the  Catacombs 
at  Rome. 

On  the  Appian  Way  is  seen  the  celebrated  tomb  of  Caecilia  Metella  ;  it  is 
circular  and  sixty-five  feet  in  diameter.  There  is  a  handsome  frieze  adorned 
with  wreaths  of  flowers.  In  the  interior  was  the  beautiful  sarcophagus  which 
was  removed  to  the  Farnese  palace.  Such  monuments  are  not  erected  in  the 
nineteenth  century  to  the  memory  of  women,  and  surely  there  must  be  women 
worthy  of  such  monuments,  or  did  the  pagan  Romans  revere  the  memory  of  their 
womankind  more  than  the  Christians  of  to-day  ?  I  entered  the  church  of  "  St. 
Pietro  in  Vineoli,"  where  stands  the  magnificent  statue  of  Moses  by  Michael 
Angelo,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  statues  which  exist.  From  there  to  the 
wonderful  temple  of  the  Pantheon,  the  most  splendid  monument  of  antiquity  in 
Rome,  erected  by  Agrippa  twenty-seven  years  before  our  Saviour's  birth.  In 
this  magnificent  temple  are  buried  Caracci  and  the  immortal  Raphael.  I  paused 
for  a  time  before  the  ruins  of  the  Roman  Forum,  before  the  temple  of  Saturn,  which 
was  built  491  years  before  Christ.  Then  to  the  baths  of  Caracalla,  begun  in  the 
year  212  by  Caracalla  and  finished  by  Alexander  Severus.  It  requires  only  a 
look  at  these  wonderful  ruins  to  understand  the  magnificence  and  splendor  of 



the  ancient  Romans.  These  baths  could  accommodate  1600  bathers  at  once. 
The  heating  apparatus  and  hot-air  pipes  have  recently  been  discovered.  Beautiful 
statues  have  been  found  in  these  ruins,  and  there  are  immense  rooms  with 
beautiful  mosaic-tiled  floors.  There  are  policemen  guarding  these  ruins,  as  the 
beautiful  mosaic  floors  prove  a  strong  temptation  to  tourists,  and  no  matter  how 
much  one  may  condemn  vandalism,  few  could  resist  the  mosaics  from  the  baths 
of  Caracalla. 

The  grand  church  of  St  Peter,  with  its  lofty  dome,  magnificent  columns  and 
wonderful  ornamentation,  is  the  admiration  of  the  world — a  church  where  the 
genius  of  Michael  Angelo  and  Raphael  united,  where  architects,  painters  and 
sculptors  have  used  their  greatest  skill,  till  at  last  it  stands  a  monument  of  great- 
ness and  one  of  the  wonders  of  the  world.  The  Vatican  palace,  the  largest  in 
the  world,  was  at  one  time  a  dwellix>g  for  the  Popes,  and  is  occupied  at  the 
present  time  by  Pope  Leo  XIII.  Nearly  all  the  rooms  are  show  rooms,  only  a 
small  portion  of  the  building  being  occupied  by  the  Pope.  There  are  about 
11,000  halls,  chapels,  saloons  and  private  apartments.  After  visiting  the  Sistine 
chapel,  made  famous  by  its  paintings  by  Raphael,  its  frescoes  by  Florentine 
masters  and  wonderful  work  of  Michael  Angelo,  I  went  to  the  stables  to  see  the 
carriages  of  the  Pope  ;  one  of  them  cost  $20,000,  but  the  present  Pope  has  never 
ridden  in  these  carriages,  nor  does  he  go  out  of  his  apartments  ;  considering 
himself  a  prisoner,  he  refuses  to  leave  the  Vatican.  Truly  a  magnificent  prison, 
St.  Peter's,  the  Vatican  and  the  Sistine  chapel  ! 

The  most  wonderful  of  all  the  great  ruins  of  ancient  Rome  stands,  the 
Colosseum,  the  largest  amphitheatre  in  the  world,  completed  by  Titus  eighty  years 
after  the  birth  of  our  Saviour.  The  wonderful  structure  was  oval,  and  the  exterior 
was  composed  of  three  stories  of  arches,  and  each  story  had  eighty  arches. 
One  hundred  thousand  people  could  be  accommodated.  The  arena  had  two 
entrances,  and  entrances  for  the  gladiators  and  wild  beasts.  At  the  inauguration 
there  were  5,000  wild  animals  killed,  and  it  is  said  that  6,000  Christians  were 
devoured  by  the  animals  during  the  hundred  days  of  revelry  and  butchery.  I 
would  like  to  be  able  to  describe  accurately  these  wonderful  ruins,  but  I  find  it 
impossible,  and  although  only  one  third  of  the  gigantic  building  remains,  the  ruins 
are  the  most  impressive  of  any  in  the  world,  I  think  It  has  passed  through  many 
stages  and  been  used  for  various  purposes.  From  the  "  Roman  holidays "  of 
gladiator  combats,  which  were  abolished  in  405,  the  wild  beast  fights  were 
continued  till  the  time  of  Theodoric  the  Great.  It  was  used  in  the  Middle  Ages 
by  the  Roman  barons  as  a  fortress.  In  1332  the  Roman  nobility  again  introduced 


bull  fights  ;  then  after  that  period  the  magnificent  building  was  used  as  a  quarry. 
In  the  fifteenth  century  they  began  removing  the  materials  for  the  construction  of 
palaces,  and  when  one  learns  that  three  palaces  were  constructed  from  the 
Colosseum,  then  the  idea  of  the  original  size  begins  to  dawn  upon  one.  Pope  Pius 
VII.  and  Leo  XII.  endeavored  to  preserve  the  ruins,  and  in  order  to  do  so 
erected  large  buttresses.  These  interesting  ruins  have  re-echoed  the  howls 
of  wild  beasts,  and  groans  of  Christians  who  have  died  for  their  faith,  and  Roman 
ladies  have  witnessed  the  sickening  sights  of  gladiatorial  combats.  Near  the 
Colosseum  there  is  an  old  fountain,  where  the  gladiators  used  to  wash  their  wounds 
after  their  struggles  with  the  wild  beasts.  This  building  has  always  been 
symbolical  of  the  greatness  of  Rome,  and  gave  rise  to  this  prophecy  among  the 
pilgrims :  "  While  stands  the  Colosseum,  Rome  shall  stand ;  when  falls  the 
Colosseum,  Rome  shall  fall  ;  and  when  Rome  falls,  with  it  shall  fall  the  world." 

I  visited  the  palace  of  Colonna — relatives  of  the  Prince  Colonna  who 
married  Miss  Mackay.  The  palace  is  opened  to  the  public  certain  days  in  the 
week,  and  on  the  walls  are  hung  many  handsome  pictures  by  Rubens,  Van  Dyck, 
Tintoretto,  Guido,  Titian,  and  others. 

I  have  said  nothing  about  the  miles,  almost,  of  pictures  to  be  seen  in  Rome — 
pictures  by  the  old  masters  ;  and,  notwithstanding  their  wonderful  beauty,  one 
tires  after  a  time  of  Madonnas  and  pictures  of  Virgins. 

Among  the  most  beautiful  things  in  Rome  is  the  Fontana  di  Trevi,  or 
Fountain  of  Trevi.  It  is  erected  against  the  Plazzo  Poll.  In  the  central  niche 
is  the  beautiful  statue  of  Neptune,  at  the  sides  Health  and  Fertility.  The 
Romans  say  that  anyone  drinking  of  the  water  of  Trevi  will  never  forget  Rome, 
and  the  superstitious  say  that  if  a  stranger  throws  a  coin  into  the  fountain  before 
leaving,  and  drinks  of  the  water,  he  will  surely  return  to  Rome.  I,  wishing  to 
return  some  day  to  this  city  of  ruins,  threw  a  coin  into  the  fountain  and  drank  of 
the  water  of  Trevi. 


FTER  leaving  Rome  we  took  the  train  for  Florence,  a  distance  which 
t^       occupied  about  seven  hours,  arriving  in  the  evening,  the  river  Arno 
looking  in   the  moonlight  like    a    silver    thread,    giving  one  a  fine 
impression  of  the  birthplace  of  the  immortal  Dante. 

The  beautiful  Metropolitan  Church  is  the  first  thing  which  strikes  the  eye 
in  Florence.  Every  part  of  this  edifice  has  a  history  and  an  interesting  one. 
The  foundation  stone  was  laid  in  1298.  The  exterior  is  covered  with  marbles  of 
different  colors,  and  the  crowning  glory  is  the  cupola.  The  beautiful  stained 
glass  windows  are  the  works  of  Bernardo  de  Vetri  and  other  master  hands.  At 
the  back  of  the  altar  is  a  statue  left  unfinished  by  Michael  Angelo.  The 
Battistero,  built  in  the  seventh  century,  is  celebrated  for  its  magnificent  bronze 
gate  by  Ghiberti,  which  Michael  Angelo  said  was  worthy  of  being  the  gate  of 
Paradise.  The  famous  Medicean  Chapel  is  one  of  the  beauties  of  Florence,  where 
we  see  the  tombs  of  the  De  Medicis  and  handsome  monuments.  But  the  most 
interesting  place  in  Florence  is  the  Uffizi  gallery.  There  is  seen  the  Venus  of 
the  Medicis,  a  Greek  work,  the  Dancing  Faun,  one  of  the  great  works  of  the 
ancients  ;  paintings  by  Raphael,  Corregio,  Caracci,  and  other  great  artists. 
Among  the  remarkable  houses  which  have  been  occupied  by  celebrated  people  is 
the  house  of  Dante  ;  the  villa  occupied  by  Michael  Angelo  ;  Cellini's  house  ;  the 
house  of  Galileo,  the  house  where  Raphael  resided,  Andrea  Del  Sarto,  and 
stranger  than  all,  the  place  where  Americus  Vespucius  was  born. 


From  Florence  to  Venice  requires  only  a  few  hours  ride  by  train,  but  when 
one  arrives  in  this  place  the  utter  strangeness  of  one's  surroundings  seems  to  place 
one  beyond  the  reach  of  all  places  and  all  things  to  which  one  has  been 
accustomed.  This  wonderful  Venice,  which  at  one  time  was  the  commercial 
centre  of  the  world,  suffered  by  the  discovery  of  America,  but  I  think  it  must 
owe  much  of  its  present  prosperity  to  Americans,  as  they  of  all  foreigners  are 
the  most  numerous  in  Venice,  and  are  the  owners  of  many  of  the  old  palaces 
which  were  occupied  at  one  time  by  the  Venetian  nobles.  After  leaving  the 
train  we  were  taken  to  our  hotel  in  a  gondola,  for  there  are  no  horses  in  Venice, 
everything  being  carried  by  gondolas,  and  many  people  living  there  have  never 
seen  a  horse.     So  the  strangeness  of  the  scene  was  thrust  upon  us  at  the  outset 



as  we  took  our  seats  in  the  gondola,  and  started  down  the  Grand  Canal  from 
there  into  side  streets,  the  gondola  making  sharp  turns  around  corners  with  a 
rapidity  which  is  astonishing  when  one  considers  that  it  is  propelled  by  one  oar. 
We  passed  Venetian  ladies — probably  out  making  afternoon  calls — with  their 
private  gondolas  and  gondoliers,  the  gondolier  in  many  instances  wearing  the  family 
coat  of  arms  on  his  sleeve  ;  thus  instead  of  carriages  with  the  coat  of  arms 
emblazoned  thereon,  the  Venetians  have  them  upon  their  gondolas  and  gondo- 
liers. We  stopped  at  the  "  Hotel  Monaco,"  Grand  Canal,  and  from  my  window 
I  could  look  down  directly  into  the  water,  and  was  awakened  many  times  in  the 
night  during  my  stay  in  Venice  by  the  strange  sound  of  the  oar  of  the  gondolas. 
The  Venetians  have  a  saying  "'  One  Venice,  one  sun,  and  one  Piazza  San 
Marco."  It  is  the  correct  thing  for  the  people  to  go  to  the  Lido  to  see  the  sun 
rise,  but  I  am  satisfied  to  get  all  my  information  in  regard  to  sunrises  second 
hand,  as  I  much  prefer  to  lie  in  bed  and  read  the  descriptions,  or  better  still,  hear 
nothing  about  the  subject,  for  who  can  describe  or  paint  a  sunrise  .''  But  the 
Piazza  San  Marco,  or  St.  Mark's  Square,  interested  me  very  much.  In  one  part  of 
the  square  is  the  celebrated  clock  tower.  On  the  top  of  the  tower,  on  each  side 
of  a  large  bell,  are  two  large  bronze  figures  by  Ambrogia  dalle  Ancore,  in  1497, 
the  year  of  the  discovery  of  America.  The  Campanile  is  the  highest  monument 
in  Venice,  and  the  terrace  underneath  is  ornamented  with  statues  and  bas-reliefs 
and  columns  of  Greek  marble. 

The  Cathedral  of  St.  Mark  was  commenced  in  the  middle  of  the  eleventh 
century,  and  is  celebrated  for  its  Oriental  marble  works,  its  carvings,  paintings 
and  bronzes.  The  Doges'  palace  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  buildings  in  St. 
Mark's  Square,  and  Charles  Dickens  alludes  to  the  beautiful  arches  in  his 
"  Pictures  from  Italy."  But  of  all  the  statues,  architecture  and  marvellous  works 
of  skill  in  this  celebrated  square,  there  was  nothing  which  interested  me  so  much 
as  the  pigeons,  or  as  they  are  called,  the  "  Pigeons  of  St.  Mark,"  for  they  are  the 
prot(^g^s  of  the  city,  and  anyone  found  ill-treating  or  injuring  them  in  any  way  is 
fined  or  imprisoned,  for  it  is  believed  by  the  credulous  that  the  prosperity  of 
Venice  depends  upon  these  pigeons,  that  the  fact  of  their  being  there  is  a  sign 
that  the  city  will  not  be  swallowed  by  the  waters  of  the  sea.  Every  day  at  two 
o'clock  their  dinner  bell  is  rung,  the  vesper  bells  being  used  for  that  purpose. 
The  moment  the  bells  commence  to  ring  the  birds  fly  to  this  square,  and  it  is  said 
that  if  the  bell  ringing  is  omitted  the  birds  scream  and  flap  their  wings  in  a 
peculiar  manner.  I  saw  a  little  girl  feeding  them  ;  the  birds  flocked  about  her  in 
thousands,  lighting  on  her  head  and  in  her  hands — a  pretty  picture  for  an  artist. 


I  always  had  a  desire  to  see  the  "  Bridge  of  Sighs,"  of  which  Lord  Byron 
says  : — 

"  I  stood  in  Venice  on  the  Bridge  of  Sighs, 
A  palace  and  a  prison  on  each  hand." 

But  I  was  disappointed,  as  it  requires  a  vivid  imagination  to  invest  this  bridge 
with  ^Buch  interest,  although  writers  say  it  is  the  most  celebrated  bridge  in  the 
world.  It  is  true  that  there  is  a  palace  at  one  end  and  a  prison  at  the  other,  and 
the  prisoners  were  led  from  the  palace  to  the  prison,  but  I  think  these  lines  of 
Byron  have  invested  it  with  too  much  importance.  In  the  church  of  St.  Marie 
dei  Frari  is  to  be  seen  the  tombs  of  Titian  and  Canova. 

In  going  down  the  water  streets  of  Venice  we  pass  many  celebrated  palaces 
which  were  once  occupied  by  famous  people.  There  is  seen  the  house  where 
Tintoretto  lived,  the  celebrated  Fondaco  dei  Turchi,  which  has  been  admired  by 
Byron,  Tasso  and  Petrarch  ;  the  Palazzo  Benyon,  which  was  occupied  by  Byron, 
Canova  and  Moore;  the  Mocinigo  palace  was  occupied  by  Byron  in  i8i8, 
where  he  wrote  the  first  cantos  of  Don  Juan;  Petrarch's  house,  which  was  pre- 
sented to  him  in  1362  ;  the  palace  of  Taglioni,  the  celebrated  Italian, 
and  many  other  noble  palaces  whose  foundations  have  been  washed  for  centuries 
by  the  waters  of  the  Adriatic. 

"  There  is  a  glorious  city  in  the  sea  : 
The  sea  is  in  the  broad,  the  narrow  streets. 
Ebbing  and  flowing  ;  and  the  salt  sea-weed 
Clings  to  the  marble  of  her  palaces. 

No  track  of  men,  no  footsteps  to  and  fro 
Lead  to  her  gates.     The  path  lies  o'er  the  sea. 
Invincible  :  and  from  the  land  we  went 
As  to  a  floating  city." 

After  leaving  Venice  our  next  destination  was  Milan,  to  see  the  world 
renowned  Cathedral.  It  is  built  in  the  form  of  a  cross,  and  no  tongue  or  pen 
can  describe  its  wondrous  beauty — a  structure  that  seems  impossible  to  have 
been  built  by  human  hands,  so  delicate  does  it  appear.  Its  beautiful  spires  look 
like  frost,  and  as  pure  as  snow,  while  the  statues  from  their  dizzy  heights  seem  to 
have  been  placed  there  by  the  spirits  of  the  air,  and  if  the  souls  of  the  departed 
dead  are  permitted  to  revisit  earth,   surely  no   fitter   spot   could    they  find  than 


among  the  spires  and  statues  of  Milan  Cathedral.  No  one  can  look  upon  this 
structure  without  being  better  for  it  ;  no  one  can  look  upon  it  without  for- 
getting earth  and  all  things  earthly.  I  turn  from  it  with  regret,  for  never  again 
will  I  stand  before  any  work  of  man  so  beautiful,  so  graceful,  or  so  pure  as  this 
wonderful  poem  in  marble. 

After  leaving  Milan,  the  next  place  of  interest  was  Comoin  Switzerland,  the 
lake  about  which  poets  have  sung  and  novelists  written.  There  we  took  the 
train  to  cross  the  Alps,  and  passed  through  the  St.  Gothard's  Tunnel,  the  place 
which  required  such  engineering  skill.  It  is  by  no  means  a  pleasant  sensation  to 
feel  that  you  are  beneath  a  mountain,  in  utter  darkness,  on  a  train  which  is 
performing  some  kind  of  evolutions  on  a  spiral  railway.  While  crossing  the 
Alps,  many  times,  just  as  I  caught  a  glimpse  of  some  beautiful  bit  of  scenery, 
suddenly  I  found  myself  in  darkness,  for  there  are  tunnels  and  tunnels,  but  the 
greatest  of  all  is  the  St.  Gothard's,  which  requires  twenty  minutes  to  pass  through. 

When  we  started  to  cross  the  Alps,  before  we  made  the  ascent,  the  valley 
was  green  with  grapes  growing  on  the  vines.  We  found  ourselves  plunged 
into  a  tunnel,  and  when  we  emerged  from  it  the  valley  was  below  us.  We  passed 
little  Swiss  houses,  another  tunnel,  and  upon  emerging  again  the  little  houses 
were  below  us  and  we  found  the  atmosphere  colder  ;  another  tunnel,  then  we 
were  in  the  region  of  snow,  with  pines  growing  on  the  mountain  side.  We  had 
left  the  grapes  and  green  fields  below,  and  upon  looking  down  we  could  see  the 
mouth  of  the  tunnel  from  which  we  had  recently  emerged,  while  the  bridge  we  had 
just  crossed  looked  like  a  spider's  web  below.  One  more  tunnel  and  we  were  on 
the  highest  point,  and  the  scenery  was  grand  in  the  extreme.  Mountain  gorges 
below  us  and  bridges  that  seemed  unable  to  bear  the  weight  of  a  man,  and  it 
seemed  almost  incredible  that  they  had  carried  the  weight  of  the  heavy  train.  It 
was  extremely  cold  at  the  summit,  but  the  greatest  inconvenience  from  which  I 
suffered  was  deafness,  through  the  air  being  so  rarified.  We  plunged  once  again 
into  a  tunnel,  and  after  coming  to  the  opening  we  could  see  the  track  above  us 
this  time,  and  on  and  on  through  endless  tunnels  we  gradually  descended  and 
found  ourselves  on  the  other  side  of  the  Alps.  On  through  Switzerland  into 
France,  then  on  to  the  brilliant  capital,  Paris.  I  will  not  weary  my  readers  with 
any  descriptions  of  Paris,  as  it  is  a  threadbare  subject ;  but  the  Parisians  collect- 
ively are  a  constant  source  of  wonder  Their  lives,  which  are  always  at  Jiigh 
pressure,  seem  to  suggest  the  old  saying,  "  A  short  life  and  a  merry  one,"  if  the  life 
of  a  blazP,  Parisian  can  be  said  to  be  merry.  They  are  nothing  if  not  sensational, 
and  while  I  was  there  the  craze  was  Patti,  and  hysterical,  emotional,  extravagant 


Paris  fairly  outdid  itself.  The  newspaper  criticisms  and  eulogies  were  such  as 
could  only  be  produced  by  the  Parisian  press. 

From  Paris  we  took  the  train  to  Calais,  a  distance  of  only  a  few  hours'  travel, 
then  crossed  the  English  Channel  in  seventy  minutes.  This  very  narrow  strip 
of  water  sometimes  proves  much  too  wide  in  stormy  weather  and  is  the  bete  noire 
of  amateur  sailors  ;  but  when  I  was  crossing,  the  Channel  was  in  a  gracious 
mood  ;  consequently  I  escaped  the  usual  mal  de  mer.  From  Dover  we  took  the 
train  again  for  London,  the  time  required  being  only  ten  hours  from  Paris  to 

I  have  listened  to  people  speaking  in  terms  of  dismay  of  continental  Sundays, 
and  often  when  the  subject  of  opening  an  art  gallery  on  Sunday  has  been 
proposed,  people  have  held  up  their  hands  in  horror  and  exclaimed,  "  It  would  be 
impossible.  Just  look  at  the  Continent  for  an  example.  If  we  opened  galleries, 
the  next  thing  we  would  have  continental  Sundays  "  I  think  if  such  people  were 
to  spend  some  time  on  the  Continent,  they  would  change  their  minds  in  regard  to 
many  things.  I  do  not  mean  to  say  that  the  people  of  Italy,  Switzerland  and 
France  observe  the  Sunday  as  the  Anglo-Saxon  does,  by  sitting  at  home  and 
denying  himself  all  pleasure  ;  but  in  my  travels  on  the  Continent  I  have  heard  no 
noise,  no  disturbance,  no  drunkenness,  in  the  streets  on  Sunday.  I  passed 
through  a  little  village  in  Italy  one  Sunday,  and  there  were  a  number  of  the 
village  maidens  and  young  men  dancing  on  the  green,  but  there  was  no  noise. 
The  theatres  are  open  in  all  the  large  cities,  but  there  is  no  disturbance,  and  I  did 
not  see  one  man  intoxicated  during  my  travels  on  the  Continent.  I  am  not  advo- 
cating theatres  on  Sunday,  nor  the  opening  of  art  galleries  or  libraries,  as  I  believe 
in  everyone  being  miserable  in  their  own  way  ;  and  if  the  Anglo-Saxon  can  get 
his  full  amount  of  misery  by  making  Sunday  a  day  of  penance,  by  all  means  let 
him  have  it.  What  I  wish  to  say  is  that  continental  people  can  enjoy  their 
Sunday  rationally,  without  penance,  without  noise  or  drunkenness.  In  London 
some  of  the  authorities  are  working  hard  to  have  the  museums  and  art  galleries 
opened  on  Sunday,  so  that  the  working  man  and  his  family  may  visit  them.  They 
have  succeeded  in  opening  some  of  these  places,  and  in  time  they  will  all  be 


ERE  again  I  am  going  to  spare  my  readers  any  description  of  London; 
too  many  books  have  been  written  on  the  subject.  Here  is  the  usual 
regulation  route  in  London,  which  all  writers  take,  but  many  of  these 
places  did  not  interest  me  I  went,  like  all  the  rest  of  the  world,  to  Westminster 
Abbey,  and  was  told  to  notice  particularly  a  certain  portion  of  the  floor,  which 
was  six  hundred  years  old  or  more;  but  after  having  seen  a  column  which  was 
brought  to  Rome  from  Egypt,  where  it  was  erected  two  thousand  years  before  the 
birth  of  Christ,  this  marble  floor  in  Westminster  seemed  very  new.  But  I 
believe  my  travels  have  not  been  of  the  regulation  order,  and  London  was  no 
exception  to  the  rule,  as  I  went  to  the  places  which  were  the  most  interesting  to 
me,  and  I  hope  my  readers  do  not  object  to  going  with  me  to  the  East  End  to  the 
London  slums.  One  Sunday  afternoon  I  went,  accompanied  by  a  police  officer, 
to  the  poor  part  of  this  great  city.  Our  way  led  us  through  that  portion  known 
as  Whitechapel,  the  scene  of  the  horrible  murders.  Nothing  can  be  more  sur- 
prising than  the  sudden  change  from  the  principal  street,  with  its  well-dressed 
people,  into  this  hive  of  poverty,  misery  and  crime.  Here,  within  sight  of  the 
Bank  of  England,  the  Mansion  House,  and  the  Exchange,  is  this  fearful  poverty. 
I  walked  through  these  narrow  lanes,  where  there  were  thousands  of  men,  women 
and  children  ;  men  with  brutal  faces,  made  brutal  by  poverty  and  crime  ;  women 
with  scarcely  a  trace  of  woman  left ;  children— God  help  them  ! — with  nothing  of 
childhood  about  them.  I  went  into  what  is  called  a  lodging  house,  where,  by 
paying  fourpence  a  day,  a  man  may  cook  what  little  he  can  get,  and  if  he  can 
get  nothing  to  eat,  he  may  sleep  there.  I  went  in  just  as  they  were  taking  their 
meal — if  it  can  be  called  such — and  witnessed  a  sight  which  I  shall  not  forget. 
There  were  about  four  hundred  men  sitting  around  pine  tables,  each  one  eating 
what  he  had  been  able  to  get  for  himself  weak  tea  and  dry  bread  ;  in  many 
instances  eating  food  which  the  petted  lap  dogs  of  my  fashionable  lady  friends 
would  have  refused.  They  resented  our  intrusion — and  who  can  blame  them  ? — 
some  of  them  looking  up  like  hunted  wild  beasts,  others  with  the  stolid  look 
which  struggling  with  poverty  so  often  brings.  Two  of  them  had  lain  their  heads 
down  on  the  table  and  fallen  asleep,  the  picture  of  weariness.  Dt^unk,  my  readers 
may  exclaim.     Perhaps  they  were,  but  none  the  less  to  be  pitied,  as  they  must 



waken  from  this  sleep  or  drunken  stupor,  to  cold,  hunger  and  misery.  In  another 
alley  I  came  across  two  women  sitting  alone,  half  clad,  on  the  door  step  of  a 
vacant  house,  taking  their  solitary  meal,  and  the  look  of  misery  on  their  faces  will 
haunt  me  many  a  day.  On  a  few  dry  crusts  and  weak  tea  they  were  trying  to 
satisfy  hunger,  but  the  words  seem  a  mockery,  as  if  their  hunger  was  ever 
appeased ! — for  here,  in  a  land  of  plenty,  are  starving  women  and  children,  while 
men  have  spent  their  lives  in  trying  to  alleviate  the  sufferings  of  these  people, 
still  the  misery  remains.  In  one  street  some  well-meaning  ladies  were  hold- 
ing a  service  in  a  lodging  house,  but  to  me  it  seemed  worse  than  mockery.  Pure 
air,  cleanliness,  and  food  are  the  essential  needs  of  these  poor  people,  and  none 
of  these  do  they  get.  Talk  to  a  half  starving  child  about  the  goodness  of  God  ! 
See  them  look  with  white  lips  and  hungry  eyes  into  your  face,  while  you  repeat  to 
them  the  catechism  or  creed  !  The  people  who  do  these  things  may  be  well 
meaning,  but  they  know  nothing  of  human  nature.  Tell  these  poor  starving  chil- 
dren the  story  of  the  crucifixion,  and  how  will  it  affect  them,  for  are  they  not 
crucified  every  day  by  cold  and  hunger  ?  The  crown  of  thorns  which  they  wear 
is  on  their  head  at  their  birth,  and  is  composed  of  sorrow,  shame,  hunger,  misery 
and  wretchedness  ! 

He  who  has  written  so  many  kindly  things  of  such  people  as  these  is  resting 
in  Westminster  Abbey.  Before  the  grave  of  Charles  Dickens  I  reverently 
bowed.  He  took  from  such  people  his  character  of  "  Little  Nell,"  and  who  does 
not  know  of  "  Poor  Joe  "  and  his  lonely  life.  There  are  many  "  Poor  Joes  "  in  the 
London  slums  to-day. 

I  have  seen  the  volcano-ridged  mountains  of  the  Sandwich  Islands,  the  palms 
and  groves  of  Honolulu,  the  cocoanut-crowned  hills  of  Samoa  ;  have  visited  the 
home  of  the  Maori,  ascended  the  cone-shaped  Mount  Eden  of  New  Zealand, 
passed  up  the  magnificent  harbor  of  Sydney,  seen  the  mines  and  cities  of 
Australia.  Have  seen  the  snow-capped  hills  of  Tasmania,  and  watched  the 
Southern  Cross  recede  from  view  while  I  sailed  for  that  beautiful  island  of  the 
East,  Ceylon,  and  rested  for  a  time  among  the  mystic,  occult-loving  people  of 
India.  Have  passed  through  the  Red  Sea,  through  which  the  children  of  Israel 
walked  unharmed,  toward  the  land  of  the  Pharaohs,  and  have  stood  on  the 
blistering  sands  of  Egypt.  Sailed  through  the  waters  of  the  Mediterranean  to 
the  beautiful  Bay  of  Naples.  Have  seen  the  soft  skies  of  the  art-loving,  poetical 
people  of  Italy,  on   to  the  mighty    Alps  and   blue  hills  of  Switzerland.      Have 


visited  the  vine-clad  hills  of  sunny  France,  and  then  stood  upon  the  shores  of 
England.  Leaving  the  old  worlds,  with  their  Eastern  magnificence  and  Oriental 
splendor,  their  palaces  of  art  and  halls  of  science,  I  turn  my  face  toward  the  land 
which  for  many  months  is  ice-bound  and  covered  with  its  mantle  of  snow,  turn 
once  more  to  the  land  of  my  birth,  Canada. 

THE    END. 





n.»   '''■^*®^  ""NOT  REMOVE 


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